Wednesday, April 6, 2011

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

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Introduction The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a US-oriented defense alliance that was formed on August 4, 14 through a treaty, which was signed on April 4, 14 by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the UK and the USA. The basic aim of this alliance was to protect European states from the possible aggression by USSR, which after the Second War looked determined to expand her frontiers. Later on the membership increased when Greece and Turkey joined in 15, West Germany in 155 and Spain in I8. France detached itself from the military command structure in 166. The dismemberment of the USSR in December 11 and the emergence of new independent republic in Europe changed the character and role of NAT0. The collapse of socialism in Europe and dissolution of Soviet Union removed the threat from communist states. According to the treaty all the member are committed to help one another in case of any military attack against one or more nations. In addition the member countries use peaceful means to settle their disputes.

The Treaty The treaty of NATO consists of the following 14 articles

Article 1. The parties undertake, as set forth in the charter of the United Nations, to settle any 1nternational disputes in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice, are not endangered and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of forces in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations..

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Article The patties will contribute towards the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded and by promoting conditions of stability and well being. They will seek to eliminate conflict and will encourage economic collaboration among them.

Article In order to achieve more effectively the objectives of this treaty, the parties separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack.

Article 4. The parties will consult together whenever, in opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the parties is threatened.

Article 5 The parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all; and consequently they agree that if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self - defiance recognized by Article 51 of the charter of the United Nations, will assist the party or parties to attack by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other parties. Such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. Any such armed attack and measures taken as a result thereof shall be deemed reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.

Article 6 For the purpose of Article 5 an armed attack on one or more of the parties is deemed to include an armed attack on the territory of any of the parties in Europe or North America, on the Algerian Departments of France, on the occupation forces of any party in Europe, on the islands under the jurisdiction of any party in the North Atlantic area north of the tropic of cancer or on the vessels or aircraft in this area of any of the parties.

Article 7. This treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations under the charter of the parties which are members of the United Nations or the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security.

Article 8. Each party declares that none of the international engagements now in force between it and any other of the parties or any third state is in conflict with the provisions of this treaty and undertakes not to enter into any international engagement in conflict with this treaty.

Article . The parties hereby establish a council, on which each of them shall be represented, to consider matters concerning the implementation of this treaty. The council shall be so organized as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The council shall set up subsidiary bodies as may be necessary, in particular, it shall establish immediately a Defense Committee-which shall recommend measures for the implementation of Article and 5.

Article10. The parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European state in a. position to further the principles of the treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area to accede to this treaty. Any state so united may become a party to the treaty by depositing its instruments of accession with the government of the United States of America, which will inform each of the parties of the deposit of each such instrument of accession.

Article 11 This treaty shall be ratified and its provisions carried out by the parties in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. The Instruments of ratification shall be deposited as soon as possible with the government of the United States of America, which will notify all the other signatories of each deposit. This treaty shall enter into force between the United States which have ratified it as soon as the ratification of the majority of the signatories including the ratification of Belgium, Canada, France; Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States have been deposited and shall come into affect with respect to their states on the date of deposit of their ratification.

Article 1 After the treaty has been in force for ten years, or at any time thereafter, the parties shall, if any of them requests, consult together for the purpose of reviewing the treaty, having regard for the factors then affecting peace and security in the North Atlantic area, including the development of universal as well as regional arrangements under the charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security.

Article 1. After the treaty has been in force for twenty years, any party may cease to be a party one year after its notice of denunciation has been given to the United States of America which will inform the governments of other parties of the deposit of each notice of denunciation.

Article 14. This treaty, of which the English and French texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America. Duly certified copies thereof will be transmitted by the government to the governments of each of the other signatories.

Organizational Structure The structure of NATO consists of a council, the Defense Planning Committee, the Military Committee (consisting of the Allied Command for Europe and Allied Command for Atlantic), the Nuclear Planning Group and the Canada-US Regional Planning Group.

The North Atlantic Council The North Atlantic Council enjoys wide powers in respect of the political, economic, and defense matters of Europe. The foreign ministers and defense ministers of the member nations attend the meetings of the council.

The Military Committee The Military Committee consists of the chiefs of staff of the member nations. A standing group including US, UK and France has been formed in Washington (USA). This group makes policies on defense planning.

Defense Commands of NATO The NATO comprises of the following three defense commands which are entrusted with the tasks of defending their particular zones

(i) The European Command

(ii) The Atlantic Command

(iii) The Regional Command

(i) The European Command The European Command is responsible for the defense of Britain France, Belgium and the Netherlands.

(ii) The Atlantic Command The Atlantic Command covers the entire Atlantic Ocean. It consists of the air and naval commands.

(iii) The Regional Command The Regional Command is entrusted with the task of defending Canada and US

NATO after the disintegration of USSR The collapse of socialism in the late eighties and the disintegration of USSR in December 11 virtually ended the cold war between the socialist and capitalist countries, which had marked the later half of the 0th century. The end of the Cold War, practically, brought to an end the military role of NATO, which in 14 had been formed to counter the threat from USSR. The dissolution of USSR resulted in the independence of the former Soviet Republics. The rest European countries viz Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, East Germany, Romania and Bulgaria came out of the influence of USSR and adopted their own independent policies. Consequently the Soviet-backed Warsaw Pact was disbanded in April 11. These changes coupled with the reunification of Germany in October 10 drastically changed the entire European political scene. Under the circumstances the NATO members sought to modify the organizations mission, putting greater stress on political action and creating a rapid deployment force to react to local crisis. Former Warsaw Pact members were no longer considered adversaries. Hungary gained associate membership in 11. By the end of 15, 7 nations including Russia and other former Soviet Republics had joined NATO in the Partnership for Peace (PFP); drafted in December 1, which provided for limited joint military exercises, peacekeeping missions and information exchange.

As Karen V. Lawrence puts it.

Europe is not free of danger just because it is free of the Soviet threat. The nations of NATO do not cease to have geographic, political, cultural, economic, and, therefore, strategic connections binding them together just because one explicit threat has been replaced by more diffuse problems. On the most general level, NATO still has value as an efficient way to protect the security interests of a distinct group of relatively stable, democratic states within a continent increasingly plagued by instability and unpredictability. If nothing else, NATO has proved itself as a successful framework for collective policy and action. After winning the Cold War without ever using its arms, it still provides a level of physical protection beyond what each individual member could afford, and serves as military backing for collective diplomatic efforts in a more complex post-Cold War world.1

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