Thursday, June 30, 2011

The man who would become cheif

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A man named Sulay Isafu lived in Africa all his life but he wanted a better education so he moved to the United States of America to seek that education. In 18, he learned of his father’s death and had to make the biggest decision of his life. He could move back to Africa and take over his father’s position as chief of the Mamprusi tribe, or stay in the United States and live the life that he has started here. Sulay Isafu had to keep in mind his two daughters, his wife, and all he had earned in the U.S. He also had his family and the good of the tribe in Africa to consider.


If I were in Sulay’s shoes it would be a very difficult decision to make. After looking at all the possibilities, I would do the same thing that he did, work it out so that he could manage both. This way I would make both my families happy, and keep the tribe in my family’s name.


In Africa, they have many different customs and traditions. Africa isn’t as fortunate as the United States. We have electricity, plumbing, running water, and telephone services. In Ghanaian villages they don’t have toilets. They have a hole or a latrine (outhouse) and they don’t have running water. Women have to go and fetch it, and they have electricity lines but are not yet connected. For mail and telephone they have to walk to the nearest town that has them.


The roles of women are very different from roles of women in the United States. Women in Africa must do all of the chores, cooking, cleaning, and also fetching the water and carrying it back on their head. The style of clothing is different as well. In the United States, fashion allows you to wear what ever you want to wear. In Ghana clothing and dresses come in different patterns.


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As much as I don’t like to think of living life with out all the technology, running water, telephones, and electricity people in Ghana do everyday its not apart of their culture. I don’t think that after living in the United States I could go and live in Ghana without all the things that we really take for granted. It makes me think that living in the United States is really a great privilege to be able to go to the bathroom, shower, and have drinking water right at your fingertips. We do not have to cook our own food every night and we are able to go out to a restaurant. As a women, I will be able to work, have a job or career, and make it on my own.


I feel that even though America is privileged with technology, Ghana still has its strong religious beliefs and unity that brings them closer together. Ghana is like a big family. They really don’t have very much hatred towards one another.





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Piracy and Ethics

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Piracy and Ethics


In 1 worldwide illegal copying of domestic and international software cost $1.5 billion to the software industry, with a loss of $. billion in the United States alone. Estimates show that over 40 percent of U.S. software company revenues are generated overseas, yet nearly 85 percent of the software industrys piracy losses occurred outside of the United States borders. The Software


Publishers Association indicated that approximately 5 percent of the business software in the United States was obtained illegally, which 0 percent of the piracy occurs in corporate settings. In a corporate setting or business, every computer must have its own set of original software and the appropriate number of manuals. It is illegal for a corporation or business to purchase a single set of original software and then load that software onto more than one computer, or lend, copy


or distribute software for any reason without the prior written consent of the software manufacturer. Many software managers are concerned with the legal compliance, along with asset management and costs at their organizations. Many firms involve their legal departments and human resources in regards to software distribution and licensing.


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Information can qualify to be property in two ways; patent law and copyright laws which are creations of federal statutes, pursuant to Constitutional grant of legislative authority. In order for the government to prosecute the unauthorized copying of computerized information as theft, it must first rely on other theories of information-as-property. Trade secret laws are created by state law, and most jurisdictions have laws that criminalize the violations of a trade-secret holdersrights in the secret. The definition of a trade secret varies somewhat from state to state, but commonly have the same elements. For example, AThe information must be secret, Anot of public knowledge or of general knowledge in the trade or business, a court will allow a trade secret to be used by someone who discovered or developed the trade secret independently or if the holder does not take adequate precautions to protect the secret.


In 164 the United States Copyright Office began to register software as a form of literary expression. The office based its decision on White-Smith Music Co. v. Apollo , where the Supreme Court determined that a piano roll used in a player piano did not infringe upon copyrighted music because the roll was part of a mechanical device. Since a computer program is textual, like a book, yet also mechanical, like the piano roll in White-Smith, the Copyright Office


granted copyright protection under the rule of doubt.


In 174, Congress created the Natural Commission on New Technological Uses (CONTU) to investigate whether the evolving computer technology field outpaced the existing copyright laws and also to determine the extent of copyright protection for computer programs. CONTU concluded that while copyright protection should extend beyond the literal source code of a computer program, evolving case law should determine the extent of protection. The commission


also felt copyright was the best alternative among existing intellectual property protective mechanisms, and CONTU rejected trade secret and patents as viable protective mechanisms. The CONTU report resulted in the 180 Computer Software Act, and the report acts as


informal legislative history to aid the courts in interpreting the Act.


In 180 The Copyright Act was amended to explicitly include computer programs. Title 17 to the United States Code states that it is illegal to make or to distribute copies of copyrighted material


without authorization, except for the users right to make a single backup copy for archival purposes. Any written material (including computer programs) fixed in a tangible form (written somewhere i.e. printout) is considered copyrighted without any additional action on the part of the author. Therefore, it is not necessary that a copy of the software program be deposited with the Copyright Office in Washington, D.C. for the program to be protected as copyrighted. With that in mind then a copyright is a property right only. In order to prevent anyone from selling your software programs, you must ask a court (federal) to stop that person by an injunction and to give you damages for the injury they have done to you by selling the program.


The Software Rental Amendments Act Public Law 101-650) was approved by Congress in 10, this Act prohibits the commercial rental, leasing or lending of software without the express written permission of the copyright holder. An amendment to Title 18 to the United States Code waspassed by Congress in 1. This amendment. Known as Public Law 10-561 made software piracy a federal offense, and instituted criminal penalties for copyright infringement of


software. The penalties can include imprisonment of up to five years, fines up to $50,000 or both for unauthorized reproduction or distribution of 10 or more copies of software with a total retail


value exceeding $,500 or more.


Under United States law duplicating software for profit, making multiple copies for use by different users within an organization, and giving an unauthorized copy to someone else - is prohibited. Under this law if anyone is caught with the pirated software, an individual or the individuals company can be tried under both civil and criminal law. A Civil action may be established for


injunction, actual damages (which includes the infringer=s profits) or statutory damages up to $100,000 per infringement. The criminal penalties for copyright infringement can result in fines up to $50,000 and a jail term up to five years for the first offense and ten years for a second offense or both. When software is counterfeit or copied, the software developer loses their revenue and the whole software industry feels the effect of piracy. All software developers spend a lot of time and money in developing software for public use. A portion of every dollar spent in purchasing original software is funneled back into research and development of new software. Software


piracy can be found in three forms software counterfeiting, which is the illegal duplication and sale of copyrighted software in a form that is designed to make it appear to be a legitimate program; Hard disk loading, whereby computer dealers load unauthorized copies of software onto the hard disks of personal computers, which acts as an incentive for the end user to buy the hardware from that particular dealer; and downloading of copyrighted software to users connected by modem to electronic bulletin boards and/or the Internet. When software is pirated the consumer pays for that cost by new software and/or upgrade version being very expensive. Federal appellate courts in the U.S. have determined that operating systems, object code and software cotained in ROMs are protected by copyright, and some lower federal courts have also determined that microcode (the instructions set on microprocessor chips), and the look and feel of computer screens is subject to copyright protection. Which leads to the problems of the


widespread development of multimedia applications that has brought out major problems in clearing copyright for small elements of text, images, video and sound.


The United States Government has been an active participant in protecting the rights of the software industry. When the Business Software Alliance (BSA) conducts a raid, Federal Marshals or local law enforcement officials participate also. An organization known as the


Software Publishers Association (SPA) is the principal trade association of the PC software industry. SPA works closely with the FBI and has also an written enforcement manual for the FBI to help them investigate pirate bulletin board systems and organizations (audits). With the help of the FBI, the result of enforcement actions resulted in recoveries from anti-piracy actions totaling $16 million since the program started in 10.


The Software Publishers Association (SPA) funds a educational program to inform individuals and corporations about software use and the law. This program provides all PC users with the tools needed to comply with copyright law and become software legal. The SPA also publishes brochures free of charge about the legal use of software for individuals and businesses. Also available to help corporations understand the copyright law is a 1-minute videotape, which is


composed of the most commonly asked questions and answers to them. The video tape is available in French and Spanish and all together over 5,000 copies of the tape had been sold. SPA has also compiled a free Self-Audit Kit with which organizations can examine their software use practices. Included in the kit, is a software inventory management program designed to help an organization track their commercial software programs that are on all hard disks. The program searches PC hard disks for more than 100 of the most common programs used in


business.


Also available is the SPA Software Management Guide which helps companies audit their current software policies, educate employees about the legal use of software, and establish procedures to purchase, register, upgrade and backup computing systems. The guide in addition also provides an Internal Controls Analysis and Questionnaire. The guide also contains all of the SPAs current anti-piracy materials. The U.S. software industry is facing the challenges of more sophisticated network environments, greater competition among software companies along with hardware manufacturers. At this moment more software than ever before is distributed on a high volume, mass marketed basis. There are many types of software out on the market and increasing every day. They range from graphical user interfaces for application programs such as mass-market spreadsheets, to more sophisticated technical software used to design integrated circuits. The use of software plays a more vital role daily in our lives such as embedded software, which is critical to equipment in locations as a doctor=s office or an automotive shop. The instrument and devices found there depend more and more on software, because software provides the flexibility to meet the many different needs to the end user. As our lives our shaped


and enhanced more by technology, there is already a greater demand that impacts the software industry.


One of the main concerns of the software industry is how to deal with the issues of Asoftware licensing. More and more customers want customized software suited for their business or personal need, and expect the software development firms to accommodate to their


wishes. The other side of this issue is that software development firms are concerned with unrealized revenue and excess costs in the form of software piracy, unauthorized use, excess discounts and lengthened sales cycles. For the customer and the software development


firm, both have high administrative costs in regards to software programs. Software licensing policies were originally a result of software developers need to protect their revenue base in the face of potential piracy. Product delivery for software is made up of a number


of different components, which are referred to as software licensing. The following factors are taken into consideration when determining a cost for a software license; physical delivery


pricing, metric discounts, license periods support and maintenance, license management Tech support, change in use bug fixes and Platform Migration Product enhancements. The most commonly found type of software license found in business is known as a, Network license.


There are four types of categories that are classified as a network license.


Concurrent use licenses authorized a specified number of users to access and execute licensed software at any time. Site licenses authorize use at a single site, but are slowly being phased out and replaced by enterprise licenses. Enterprise licenses cover all sites within a corporation because of more virtual computing environments. Node licenses are also slowly being phased out because they are mainly used in a client/server environment, since the licensed software may be used only on a specified workstation in which a user must log on to in order to access and execute the software application. Currently the trend in a network system is to use measurement software, which allows vendors to be more flexible in licensing arrangements. This management software monitors and restricts the number of users or clients who may access and execute the application software at any one time. This is significant because a user pays only for needed use and a vendor can monitor such use to protect intellectual property. A new type of


license that is emerging is known as a, currency-based license. This type of license work on the basis that it provides to the end user a specified dollar amount of software licenses. For example, licenses for different business application software, so long as the total value in use at a given time is less than dollars. Another type of license emerging is known as a platform-independent licensing, which one license permits software to be used on a variety of different computer systems within a business, instead of buying a different license for each version of the same software used by different systems. The most common type of licensing is known as Shrink-wrap, the concept behind this that the licenses terms are deemed accepted once the end user breaks a shrink-wrap seal or opens a sealed envelope containing the software. A reason for these new types of licensing emerging is that when software licensing was first introduced, the


software development firms assumed that most businesses would use the software for a 8 to 10 hour period. Yet, did not take into consideration that with the advancement of technology, more businesses would want a floating license across the world for 4 hours - thus it was not cost effective for the software development firm. A floating license is a license that is made available to anyone on a network. The licenses are not locked to particular workstations, instead they Afloat to modes on the network.


Shareware, freeware and public domain are different type of software available to the end user, and are distinguished by different rules about how programs may be distributed, copied, used and


modified. The term shareware refers to software that is distributed at a low cost, but which requires usually a payment after a certain time period and registration for full use. Copies of this software are offered on a trial basis, the end user is free to try a scaled down version of the program. If the end user wants the shareware program, included in the program is information specifying how to register the program and what fee is required. Once registered the end user will


typically receive a printed manual, an updated copy of the software (often with additional features), and the legal right to use the program in their home or business. The advantage that shareware has is that it lets the end user thoroughly test a program to see if it=s useful before making a purchase. The authors of shareware programs retain their copyright on the contents, and as other copyrighted software should not be pirated.


Freeware is also distributed at a very low cost and like shareware is found mainly on the Internet. The authors of the freeware program do not expect payment for their software. Typically, freeware programs are small utilities or incomplete programs that are released by authors for the potential benefit to others, but the drawback to this is that there is no technical support. Public domain software is generally found on the Internet and is released without any condition upon its use. It may be copied, modified and distributed as the end user wishes to do. A license manager is a system utility-like application that controls or monitors the use of another end-user application. It is generally implemented to protect intellectual property (meaning to stop illegal copying) and/or to become more competitive by offering new ways in which to evaluate, purchase and pay for software. Since the license manager controls the number of application users, there is not a need to control the number of application copies. This process lets the end user run one or more applications between machines, without violating the terms of the license agreement.


SPA has created a program that companies can use to help discover and correct problems before they result in legal actions, fines and also negative publicity. The eight point program is as


follows


1. Appoint a software manager to implement and monitor all aspects of company software policy.


. Implement a software codes of ethics for everyone to adhere to. The ethics should state that copyrighted software, except for backup and archival purposes, is a violation of the law.


. Establish a procedure for acquiring and registering software. Determine your companies software needs, evaluate software packages, and also have supervisors approve the plans. Keep the lines of communication open.


4. Establish and maintain a software log. The log should state the date of when the software was acquired, the registration of it, serial number, network version, location of where the software is in use, where the original is, licensing agreement and the location of the original disks.


5. Conduct periodic audits or on a as needed basis comparing the software log and/or other purchase records.


6. Establish a program to educate and train your employees about every aspect of software and its uses.


7. Maintain a library of software licenses and provide users with copies of the agreement.


8. Having done the above seven points, the company can benefit by having obtained software legally, receive full documentation, technical support when needed and also upgrade notices.


Patents do not cover specific systems, instead they cover particular techniques that can be used to build systems or particular features that systems can offer. Patent grants the inventor a 17 year monopoly on its use. Once a technique or feature is patented, it may not be used in a system without the permission of the patent-holder - even if it is implemented in a different way. Since a computer program usually uses several techniques and provides many features, it can


infringe many patents at once. A computer program is built out of ideal mathematical objects whose behavior is defined, not modeled approximately, by abstract rules. An example of this is Borland International, Inc. complained in the 1st Federal District Court gave Lotus Development Corp. the benefit of patent protection to Lotus 1-- menu commands and their order, but failed to require Lotus to meet the requirements of patent law, including novelty, examination


and contribution to the prior art. The Supreme Court sided with the 1st Circuit decision that one entity cannot own the user interface to programs. Meaning such as file formats, menu structures and programming languages.


Software license agreements emerged as the most popular means of protection of proprietary rights in computer software. They coexist with other forms of intellectual property rights as patent and copyright. Software license agreements serve several functions in


transactions involving the transfer of computer technology. One of the most important legal functions is the protection of the proprietary rights of the licenser in the transferred software. Other functions include controlling the revenue generated by licensed software and determining the rights and responsibilities of the parties regarding the performance of the licensed technology. Issue related to these functions include the applicability of Article of the Uniform Commercial Code, including offer and disclaimer of warranties, determining the appropriate types of licenses to utilize, such as single users/CPU licenses, Site/enterprise licenses and network/concurrent licenses. Trade secret, copyright and patent law are Astatic@ forms of protection in the sense that they may exist independently of any underlying business transactions and do not


necessarily require any transfer of intellectual property from one party to another.


Whereas, the need for a license agreement usually arises as one of the contractual forms of protection when the underlying business transaction involves the transfer of intellectual property,


such as computer software. Transactions involving the transfer of computer software are subject to both federal and state laws. Generally, state law governs contractual and trade secrets aspects of the transaction, while federal law governs aspects related to patent, copyright and antitrust issues. Each state has its own version of a doctrine of a trade secret, the common thread through these state-specific laws is that if you show that you are seriously treated information as confidential and that the confidential information helped your competitive position, you can stop others from using it if the information was improperly acquired by them, and even


collect damages from the wrongdoers.


A computer is useless without software. The two types of software typically found on a computer are operating systems software and application software. Operating system software provides interface that makes it easier to develop programs for the system by reducing the amount of code that must be written. The operating system acts as an interface between the computer hardware, application programs and the end user. Application software consists of one or more computer program that fulfill a specific function for the user like word processing, bookkeeping or financial analysis. Two legal cases recently within the last few years has brought to light the controversy regarding the copyright protection of software elements. Until 1, most of the federal courts followed the decision in Whenlan v Jaslow Dental Laboratory as a precedent of similar cases. Whenlan, a small software company wrote a accounting program for Jaslow Dental Laboratory company. Jaslow rewrote the software to run on personal computers and proceeded to sell the product. The software was identical to Whenlans in the data structures, logic, and the program structure, except for the source code. Jaslow argued that the duplicated elements were part by the of the idea - not the expression. The court in response felt that the data structures, logic, and the program structure comprised to make a single function of a computer


program, therefore copyright protection should be given to those elements also.


In 1, this protection was weakened by Computer Associates v. Altai, Inc. , when Altai a software developer was accused of copying various modules of a software package developed by Computer Associates which controlled the running of applications on IBM mainframes. The court rejected Whelan=s premise that a computer program embodies one function because programs are made up of sub-routines that contain their own idea. The court recognized this would narrow the scope of software copyright protection and found this in accordance with Congressional intent of computer programs with copyright. This resulted in why currently software copyright is not as


broad as it once was.


Bibliography


Brandel, William, Licensing stymies users,


URLhttp//www.viman.com/license/license.html#policy, Viman


Software, Inc., 14.


Business Software Alliance, Software Piracy and the Law,


URLhttp//www.bsa.org/bsa/docs/soft_pl.html, Business Software


Alliance, 15.


Software Publishers Association, SPA Anti-Piracy Backgrounder,


URLhttp//www.spa.org/piracy/pi_back.htm, Software Publishers


Association, 15.


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Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Lord of the Flies

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hello hi hey whats up. What are you doing. Having fun? Do I have to do this? Is this nesscary? Im on the Internet typing. Im not having fun. I dont even want to do this, but I am. Do I have two hundred adn fifty words yet. I guess not. What is my favorite movie. Well Im not going to tell you. Today is Tuesday. I wish it was Friday becuase then the weekend would be a little closer. I wonder if I have two hundred and fifty words yet. Nope. I dont have two hundred and fifty words yet. This is really boring. I dont even know why Im doing this. Why should I be doing this? I dont know. This is stupid to me. Please let this be two hundred and fifty words. Please. I really would like to stop typing now. My hands are starting to get tried. Hopefully now I have two hundred and fifty words. Because that is alot of words. For a second there my keyboard wouldnt type. Now its working. Guess those stupid ads messed me up. Oh well. Well Im going to stop now. Bye. hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi bye bye bye bye bye bye bye bye bye bye bye bye bye hi hi hi hi bye bye bye bye bye one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven tweleve thirteen fourteen fifthteen sixteen seventeen eighteen twenty twenty one twenty two twenty three twenty four twenty five twenty six twenty seven twenty eight twenty nine thirty


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Davey

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wassssuuuuppp


Nicole- Im still ready for u to get ur license so i can get dat ride...luv ya gurl


Let me know if u wanna be in here


Kylie- Ur soo kool and sweet, i luv u soo much and i hope we can get closer-......luv ya gurl;-)


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Ur the sweetest gurl I know, ur soo incredibly awesome...-


Many men, many many many men, wish death upon me


I give a shout out to ne body i forgot...and say wasssssuuuppp to all my home boyz


To my nigga john, ur my nigga 4 life


Shes my kinda rain....u know who u are SOS


--I Love You So Much Addison!!--


Much Love ALL My AwEsOmE FrIeNdS!!


All Of You Know Who U R!8-)





Laik~ Love Ya Tonz Gurl!;-)


Kayleigh~ U Know Im Lovin U Too Grandma!


Wake Me Up Inside & Save Me From The Nothin Ive Become...


im half the sugar...twice the spice ;-)


~True friends r Always there 4 ya whether ur cryin till u have no more tears or Laughin till ur stomachs hurt to the point of developing abs~


EYE CONTACT


A method utilized by a single woman to communicate to a man that she is interested in him. Despite being advised to do so, many women have difficulty looking a man directly in the eyes, not necessarily due to the shyness, but usually due to the fact that a womans eyes are not located on her chest


~JohnA… Bush, AUSTIN, Road trip, Drinving on the side of the road, Show Kelci, Johna, Im goin slap him cross-eyed! Rest Area,Thongs, Hair pens!…gurl I had the FUNNEST time this weekend..LUV YA…Bff!~





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Tuesday, June 28, 2011

emphysema

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on emphysema. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality emphysema paper right on time.

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Assumptions





The human mind is (in my theory) is a complex “thing”. Many people attempt to explain how the human mind operates. After reading some of the thoughts that Hume has, I seem to agree with a lot of what he is trying to explain. Hume, in my understanding, has come the closest to uncovering the operations of the mind.


Hume deals with a lot of what Descartes talks about in his writings. The difference between Descartes and Hume is that Hume seems to clear up some of the questions that Descartes leaves unanswered. One in particular, was that of doubting everything. Hume believed that you could doubt some things, but it was impossible to doubt everything. I completely agree with this reasoning. Doubting everything will never lead anywhere. The human mind can not just wipe out all its known memory and start over. The mind is always on. Descartes uses his beliefs to prove his own theories.


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Another thing Hume did was throw normality out the window. He is saying, that everyday life can change tomorrow. The sun may not be shining in the morning; a stapler might not fall if dropped, or that a pool ball, being hit by another, may not move. I still believe the sun will shine tomorrow, but I see what Hume is trying to get at. Everything that is thought to be definite can change. There are no proven facts that say the sun will shine tomorrow, we just assume it must. To Hume, as I understand, assumptions are dangerous. Assumption is made up of what you believe and what you do not. I can believe a pool ball will move if hit, but I can not rule out the fact that it may not. It is simply probable that it will, but not definite. Hume says probabilities are what the mind is consuming during everyday life.


Science gives the facts because it has been tested and proven. Everyday life has not been proven by science. One example of a non-proven science is gravity. Gravity pulls objects towards the center of the earth. They have tested gravity, but there are no definite facts known to prove the theories. Who knows, maybe tomorrow gravity will release its pull and everything will simply begin floating. As a society, we assume gravity will not change, and that assumption is what clouds our minds of other possibilities. Hume does not seem to want people to change the way they think, he just wants people to acknowledge the other possibilities that are out there.


I believe Hume has a very good grasp on what he is talking about. I never thought about the possibility of looking out the window some morning, only to find the sun not shining. I really do not know how anyone could disprove his theories, because he seems to cover all the bases. Everything he says makes sense. I cannot say I agree with everything, but I cannot seem to put many of my objections into words. I can not say the sun will shine in the morning, or that the stapler will fall. What are my facts? Sure, the sun was shining yesterday and today, but tomorrow might be a different story.





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philip v

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philip V was king of spain between 1700 and 1746. HE WAS THE FIRST Bourbon on the spainish throne. A grandson of Louis XIV, he was titular duke of Anjon before Charles II of Spain designated him as his successor. Louis XIV accepted the Spainis throne for his grandson and thus percipitated the War of THe Spainish Succession which severely reduced the power of the Spainish throne. The peace treaties left Spain its colonial empire, but forced it to cede the Spainish Netherlands, Sardinia, Milan and Naples to Austria and Sicily to Savoy. For having sided with Philips chief enemy in the war, Archduke Charles, Philip deprived Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia of most of their autonomous privileges. Of indolent and melancholy disposition, Philip was dominated by women. At first the princess des Ursins, lady in waiting to Philips first consort, Maria Lusia of Savoy, dominated his court. In 1714 , Philip married Elizabeth Farnese, who took complete control of her husbands policies and who he was in turn dominated by the chief minister, Cardinal Alberoni.the attempt by the queen and alberoni to reconquer the former spainsh territories in italy led to the formation of the quaduple alliance of1718 to which spain had to submit in 170. in 174, philip abdicated the throne of spain to his eldest son louis, but kater resumed it after louis died of smallpox. spains foreign policy continued to be governered to a large extent by dynastic ambition and became successful so far as the house of bourbon was concerned. in the war of the polish succession anples and sicily were passed to don carlos, son of philip and elizabeth; in the war of the austrian succession parma and piacenza passed to charles younger brother philip.


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Monday, June 27, 2011

animal research

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Should animals be used in psychological research? This is an extremely controversial question that has been debated and analyzed by many researchers and psychologists.


In the article The case for animal research in psychology, Elizabeth Baldwin states, Animals do not have the same rights as humans, but people have a responsibility to ensure the humane treatment of animals. From this quote, I believe that, first animals should be used in psychological research. I do think though, feel that a line should be drawn at using animals in research for unnecessary plastic surgery such as a face lift; but I think that the use of animals for reconstructive surgery, such as, if an individual was severely burned in a fire or disfigured in a car accident, is sufficient.


One of the very important uses of animals is in vaccine research. There are many life- threatening as well as everyday sicknesses that affect human beings. Humans are the backbone of society; we construct businesses, factories, and other necessities of life that control our society. Human beings survive off the responsibilities of other humans. If animals were not used to test these cures than the most sufficient species would slowly diminish. Animals are a significant part of human survival also, but the majority of the animals that are used in research, humans are not dependable on, such as white rats, monkeys, or hamsters. In the past many cures for deadly diseases have been discovered through animal research. Without these vaccines many humans would not have been able to lead normal lives. For example, drugs that were tested on animals have treated depression and other psychological disorders. Animals have aided our society greatly in improving the human condition (Issue , pg. ) and in return there are many federal regulations that protect animals as well as unannounced checks at these laboratories. Also, some vaccines tested on animals have benefited animals from deadly diseases, such as rabies shots, lyme disease, and feline leukemia. Clearly I conclude think that animals should be used in research for vaccines because the benefits from these tests have been a critical role in human survival as well as animal survival.


I also believe that animals should be used in the research of cosmetics and other beauty care. Regardless of whether or not cosmetics are a necessity of life, people are going to continue to use these products. It is important for these products to be tested because again it is critical to the human health and they could have to dangerous side affects. A woman could become blind from using, mascara, a man could have a negative reaction to a shaving cream, or fatal results could even occur from dysfunctional products. I do think that it is necessary for animals to be tested on for cosmetics and other beauty care to prevent any negative or unhealthy results on humans.


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I do now draw the line on animal research concerning plastic surgery. I do not think that it is humane to research the results of a face-lift or breast implants on animals. These surgical procedures are unnecessary and are not critical to human health care or survival. The only cosmetic surgery that I believe is sufficient enough to be researched on animals is reconstructive surgery. If a human was burned in a fire or disfigured in a car accident then I believe it is a reason to test the surgery on animals. I also think that life saving procedures should be tested on animals, such as a heart transplant or chemotherapy. These procedures are critical and extremely important in human survival and can also be quite critical in animal survival as well.


Although it is difficult to say whether or not the benefits from animal research outweigh the costs, I believe that many accomplishments and critical outcomes have derived from these tests. I draw the line at cosmetic surgery being abused and practiced on animals for unnecessary procedures. I believe that testing vaccines, cosmetics and other beauty care products, as well as reconstructive surgery should continue to be researched on animals because all of these factors are critical to human and animal health care and survival.





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Abigail Adams: Patriot and Women’s Rights Advocate

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Abigail Adams Patriot and Women’s Rights Advocate


During the American Revolution, a patriot was defined as “one who loves, supports and defends one country” (Webster’s Dictionary) Most certainly these qualities were reserved exclusively for the male population of the time. In 1776, words such as androgynous, woman’s activist did not exist. It is difficult to obtain and explain one simple definition of what a patriotic American was around 1776 and the Declaration of Independence. Therefore how can one person give a simple definition of a patriot during the American Revolution? Many people insist that the great political leaders of the time and the soldiers who actually fought in the Revolution exemplified a truly patriotic American. The opinions of today’s society lean towards men such as Thomas Jefferson, General George Washington and John Adams among the most ardent patriots of the time period. However, there is an entire gender omitted when defining the term.


Female colonists during the time of the American Revolution were also patriotic and tried to help the cause in any possible way. Some may say that these women followed the boycotts of the time and were patriotic in supporting the cause simply because they were married to men who were patriotic. However, this is a sever understatement. Clearly, some women were self-opinionated and possessed a true passion for freedom. Thus, these women could be considered patriots because of their own love for their country. A prime example of a true female patriot was Abigail Adams. She voiced her opinions on politics in private letters to her husband, John Adams, and at times, expressed her support publicly. She encouraged the women in her town to encourage the revolutionary cause by boycotting British goods and living simply in order to assist the politicians of the time. Since Abigail herself could not hold an office, she lived vicariously through her husband. Her witty letters provide the reader with a glimpse into her truly patriotic nature. Abigail constantly wrote to John Adams asking for any information about her country’s current situation. Additionally, she kept her husband up to date of the political nature of their Boston hometown, Braintree. As Abigail and John continued to write to each other, Abigail became increasingly determined to support her country, especially the females. In her most infamous letter to John Adams, she requests that he “remember the ladies.” This letter is possibly the most crucial depiction of Abigail’s role as a female patriot. Not only did she want to see the colonies freed from their ties with Britain, she wanted women to have a place among the men in what would become a newly formed Republic. Hence, the reader of Abigail Adams’ correspondence with her husband will find that she was an ardent patriot and one of the first women’s right’s advocates.


Abigail Adams was truly ahead of her time with regards to her intellectual pursuit and her ability to discuss political situation within her nation, and her desire for reform and inclusion of women. Abigail Adams was living proof that women did not simply cling to their husbands and complete their domestic duties day in and day out. During the Revolution, Abigail Adams wrote many letters that tell the story of how she stayed at home struggling with wartime shortages and inflation, to run the farm with minimal help, and to educate her children when their formal education was interrupted. She was a rarity of the time and a great example for women to follow in the future. As one of the first female rights advocates and ardent patriots during the time of the American Revolution, Abigail Adams truly broke ground for the future of female rights.


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Abigail Adams was born on November 11, 1744 at Weymouth, Massachusetts. Since she was born during this period, when only boys were formally educated, Abigail Adams was educated at home. Most women would receive a scanty education in the home, but as the daughter of a clergyman, Abigail’s education went further than reading and writing. She was an avid reader of anything she could get her hands on, including the Bible, history, sermons, philosophy, essays and poetry (Adams 1). Abigails love for the written word and her constant thirst for knowledge is what led to her relationship with John Adams. At first, John was taken aback by her wit and intellect. He “did not find those feminine qualities which made a woman attractive to him” in Abigail (Keller, 8). On the contrary, Abigail revealed her intellectual abilities and self-confidence to John, and eventually he became very fond of her. After their courtship and marriage, Abigail became devoted to the cause of the American colonies, involved herself in politics and developed candid opinions of the surrounding events. Abigail Adams established a precedent for the women for the future of the new Republic. Her correspondence with John Adams and family friends set a precedent for women in the new Republic to look to and emulate. Abigail Adams was truly a female patriot during the American Revolution, and she voiced her ideas on women’s rights and the revolutionary war battles freely.


One of the most important ideals that Abigail Adams held was the importance of education. Always the student, she continued reading during the war and wrote to John Adams about her opinions of the Revolution. On August 1, 1774, she wrote, “The great anxiety I feel for my Country, for you and for our family renders the day tedious, and the night unpleasant (Adams 67).” Obviously, Abigail had a great concern for the colonies in addition to her husband and family. She continued her letters with questions to John about how the colonies will act against the British making allusions to the great Greek city-state of Sparta. She had many concerns about the bloodshed that her country might have to go through to gain their freedom, but a consistent theme in her letters is her constant support of whatever the colonies chose to do.


Consistently, Abigail Adams proves her intelligence with her constant references to historical figures. In her letters to John, she offered many different interpretations of how the lessons learned by these historical figures could be useful during the time of the Revolution. In the same letter, she told John Adams that she had taken a “fondness for reading Rollin’s ancient History” (Adams, 68). This reading allowed her to explore Greece and the wars that occurred between the great city-states to ensure Liberty for all citizens. Since Abigail was a life long learner, she reinforced the importance of education to her children. She encouraged her son, Johnny, to read aloud with her, and she hoped that her children would acquire the same interest in education that she possessed. In a majority of Abigail Adams’ letters, she describes the different measures that she was taking to educate all of her children, sons and daughters, during a time period when formal education was hard to find. In a letter dated September 16, 1774, Abigail Adams writes to John Adams, “that children should in the early part of life be unaccustomed to such examples as would tend to corrupt the purity of their words and actions that they may chill with horrour at the sound of an oath, and blush with indignation at an obscene expression” (Adams, 74). Although she wanted her children to receive a sound education, she was also concerned with the moral lessons they were learning and how they used their education to become good citizens. Abigail Adams possessed a sincere interest in how her children were educated and she believed it was part of her patriotic duty to supervise their education whether it was in a formal setting or in the home of a family friend. It is obvious that Abigail Adams possessed the ability to make choices and decisions independently, based on her own thoughts and opinions. Her husband even encouraged her to speak freely and engaged her in conversations about the politics of the time. Since Abigail Adams was an intelligent, confident, outspoken woman, she consciously chose to be a patriot and persistently demonstrated her support of the cause.


Although her concentration rested with the education of her children, Abigail demonstrated a multidimensional personality. Most of her letters reveal an extreme love, care and devotion to her husband John Adams. Her intelligence and understanding of politics is constantly reinforced throughout the letters as well. In a letter dated September 14, 1774, Abigail wrote, “All my intelligance is collected from the news paper and I can only reply that I saw by that, that you arrived such a day” (Adams, 71). Her correspondence establishes many things. First, her writing illustrates an apparent concern for her husband, his whereabouts, and his business. Secondly, her writings demonstrate how knowledgeable she was on current events in the colonies and the involvement of her husband and family friends. Additionally, Abigail wrote to John about her own patriotic spirit and her surprise at the how patriotic her fellow townspeople were. She also noticed that the Tories in her town feared for their safety. She commented in a letter dated September 14, 1774, “Not a Tory but hides his head. The church parson thought they were comeing after him, and run up garret they say, an other jumpt out of his window and hid among the corn whilst a third crept under his bord fence, and told his Beads” (Adams, 7). These accounts of how the Tories were alienated were probably exaggerated, but it still demonstrates how determined the citizens were to voice their support of the colonies’ separation from Britain. Additionally, John Adams requested Abigail’s advice and detailed accounts of important information about political events of the time. Not only did John Adams seek information from Abigail Adams, he in turn sent updates to her. In a few letters from John Adams to Abigail during September of 1774, John described the meetings of Congress and the number of debates that were going on during several sessions. His writing suggests that he wanted Abigail to comment on the situations at hand.


As John Adams continued to write to his beloved, he reminded her of the most important task of a female patriot. On September 0, 1774 he wrote, “Frugality, my Dear, Frugality, OEconomy, Parcimony must be our Refuge. I hope the Ladies are every day diminishing their ornaments…” (Adams, 77). Prior to the Declaration of Independence, the females colonists were encouraged to boycott various goods from Britain in order to help the cause. Adams continued, “Let us Eat Potatoes and drink Water. Let us wear Canvass, and undressed Sheepskins, rather than submit to the unrighteous, and ignominious Domination that is prepared for Us” (77). Abigail Adams heeded her husband’s requests and reminded the women of their most important contribution to the revolution. Abigail’s denouncement of British parcels began with the Tea Act in the early 1770s. Keller writes about Abigail Adams’ resistance to the Tea Act and her reaction to the arrival of tea in Boston Harbor. She states, “Abigail did not see it (the Tea Act) as a radical departure in British policy but as the summit of accumulated grievances since the mid-1760s” (Keller 5). Abigail Adams made homespun clothes and limited the number of personal “ornaments” that she owned, but most importantly she boycotted tea. The Tea Act truly drove Abigail Adams’ resolve to support her countrymen’s indignation. She saw her country as oppressed and insulted. More importantly, she viewed America as her country too, not just the country of men. “Even in late 177, when Abigail stated that her fellow citizens would die to defend their country, she was describing the mounting conflict in terms of war between two separate nations. (Keller, 5) Abigail Adams believed that America should already be independent and needed to resolve conflicts with Britain. Evidently, Abigail Adams’ resentment towards Britain and her determination to avoid anything British (especially goods from their mother country) was a product of her own free will and thought. She formed her own opinions and was a strongly emotional woman. Eventually, her patriotic attitude would eventually lead to her commitment to the Declaration of Independence.


The correspondence between Abigail and John continued, and Abigail’s quest to be involved in the political atmosphere of the revolution heightened. The intimate relationship between John and Abigail allowed them to communicate freely about any subject, including politics. John respected his beloved wife, and wrote freely to her about the business he was attending to in Congress. In turn, Abigail wrote thoughtfully and insightfully on everything she witnessed during the revolution. One particular account is documented in her June 18, 1775 letter. First, she writes a sincere account of the death of Dr. Warren, a dear friend of the Adams. Her high opinion of Dr. Warren is evident when she wrote, “Great is our Loss. He has distinguished himself in every engagement, by his courage and fortitude, by animating the Soldiers and leading them on by his own example” (Adams, 0). Abigail’s high esteem of her friend and recollection of his involvement in battle proves that she paid specific attention to the battle that her country was embroiled in and that she believed in her country’s leaders. She knew that they would eventually lead the colonies to the ultimate goal of separation from Britain. In the same letter, Abigail Adams continues, “The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong…The Battle began upon our intrenchments upon Bunkers Hill…”(0). Abigail gave updates on the status of their friends as well as the battles that were ensuing near her home. If she were not truly a patriotic woman, she would have cared less about the current battles that the men were fighting and even less about the political world her husband was involved in. Additional letters contain accounts of battles, including the outstanding contributions made by General Howe, General Washington, and General Lee. She actually did meet General Washington, and many other generals and soldiers since her house was always open to other patriots and Abigail was always ready and willing to entertain. In a specific letter, Abigail recounts her first meeting with General George Washington and General Lee, both of whom she entertained at their home in Braintree. She wrote, “You had prepaired me to entertain a favorable opinion of him, but I thought the one half was not told me. Dignity with ease, and complacency, the Gentleman and Soldier look agreeably blended in him. Modesty markes every line and feture of his face” (Adams, 100). She also wrote of General Lee saying that he “looks like a careless hardy Veteran and from his appearance brought to my mind his namesake Charls the 1, kin of Sweeden (100). In describing her first impressions of both men as agreeable, Abigail conveys a sense of comfort with them. It seems that Abigail Adams’ strategy was to stay in touch with the political atmosphere of the time was to surround herself with these men and continue to write to John and other male friends involved in politics. She was successful in acquiring information, and she used this knowledge to form her own opinions.


John Adams, however, did not always accept Abigail’s opinions on political events. The best example of John Adams’ denouncement of one of Abigail’s opinions was written in a correspondence that took place in March of 1776. John Adams wrote to Abigail about the preparations for a document that later became the Declaration of Independence. The famous correspondence has been dubbed the “Remember the Ladies” letter. After hearing about the new code of laws she believes he is involved in creating, Abigail relayed a few requests to her husband. She wrote, “Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors…Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could” (Adams, 11). From her avid interest in politics of the time and her patriotic nature, it seems obvious to expect Abigail Adams to not only fight for the cause of the colonies as a whole, but also for the freedom for women and equality of women. She explains to John Adams that the oppression that her sex endures is parallel to the oppression that the British were imposing on the colonies. She also wrote, “If perticuliar care and attention is not paid to the Laidies we are determined to roment a Rebelion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation” (11). In this part of her letter, Abigail Adams did not mean to indicate that she would organize a revolt or break and sort of law, but she was trying to promote an idea that likely to be rejected. In Edith B. Gelles evaluation of Abigail’s letter, she identifies Abigail’s introduction of the subject of women’s rights as being a joke. After this, she states, “Jokes are the recourse of the weak when they wish to establish credibility but cannot be taken seriously because their mission far overreaches the bounds of social acceptability” (Gelles, 15). Clearly, Abigail Adams knew that her ideas were slightly far fetched, but were not completely preposterous. If the colonies were fighting for freedom from the tyrannical reign of Britain, than certainly they could include women in the fight as well.


The letter that Abigail wrote in private to John would have cause quite a stir if it had been for the public eye. Abigail was extremely bold when she made her claims. More specifically, her ideas were revolutionary. This letter contains elements that reveal a true look into Abigail’s life. Additionally, Gelles points out that Abigail Adams’ complaint to her husband in the beginning of the letter “summarized the subordinate social status of women in the Revolutionary America who were designing the future of the nation” (Gelles, 16). However, this allusion to female subordination of the time did not mean that Abigail Adams believed that the subjugation of women should continue. On the contrary, Abigail Adams was strategically trying to use her husband’s political powers to impact different political policies that were being debated at the time. (Gelles, 16) Unfortunately, Abigail Adams was extraordinarily ahead of her time, but the women of the suffragist movement almost a century and a half later would eventually emulate her ideas and attempt to put them into action.


John Adams response to Abigail’s letter was unfortunately predictable. He was more concerned with creating a unity between the quarreling colonies, not to produce more disunity through recognizing the inequality of women (Gelles, 17). On April 14, 1776, John Adams replied to Abigail, noting her accuracy in claiming that General Washington was “duped by Dunmore,” encouraging her to read Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and requested that she be patient with her expectations of “Declarations of Independency” (Adams, 1). However, he also turns down her ideas for female rights. He continued, “As to your extraordinary Code of Laws, I cannot but laugh…We know better than to repeal our Masculine Theory” (Adams, 1). Consequently, John Adams was still promoting the inferiority of Abigail’s sex, and he must have respected his “dear friend” Abigail as one of a kind. After her letter for John to “Remember the Ladies,” Abigail Adams continued her patriotic cause for the colonies and began a life long struggle to attain some rights for women.


With the continuance of her work, Abigail Adams found a way to make some improvements in the lives of the women in the new Republic. In addition to advocating women’s rights, Abigail Adams was truly a patriotic female American. As the dictionary states, a patriot is “one who loves, supports and defends one’s country.” Abigail Adams obviously loved and supported her country, and she demonstrated her love through her actions and correspondence with her husband. Abigail also defended her country through boycotting British goods and by taking care of the home while John Adams was away. Efficiently, Abigail Adams also ensured that her children would be intelligent and patriotic Americans so that they could be active participants in their new nation. Through Abigail’s own education, her close relationship with her husband, and her constant interaction with prominent figures of the time, she had the ability to make and voice her own opinions about the Revolution. This freedom that was granted to Abigail Adams allowed her to truly identify herself as an ardent patriot and women’s rights advocate.


Primary Sources


__________. The Book of Abigail and John. Eds. L.H. Butterfield, Marc Friedlaender and Mary


�Jo Kline. Cambridge Harvard University Press, 175.


Secondary Sources


Gelles, Edith B. First Thoughts, Life and Letters of Abigail Adams. New York Twayne


Publishers, 18.


Keller, Rosemary. Patriotism and the female sex Abigail Adams and the American


Revolution. New York Calson Publishers, 14.


Please note that this sample paper on Abigail Adams: Patriot and Women’s Rights Advocate is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Abigail Adams: Patriot and Women’s Rights Advocate, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Abigail Adams: Patriot and Women’s Rights Advocate will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Sunday, June 26, 2011

Smoking should be banned

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Smoking should be banned


Smoking, a deadly killer is society, a deadly poison which addicts people around the world of all ages. It kills hundreds of people per year and could ruin your social life. Every cigarette lit means another human being addicted, means another life span cut short. The following essay discusses the issue that smoking should be banned and the following points will focus on the topics of how smoking effects your health, what chemicals are contained inside cigarettes and how the government handles smoking in society. This essay will explain as to why smoking should be banned and made illegal throughout the world.


According to scientific researches there are over four thousand different types of chemicals contained in just one cigarette, some of which you would never have thought of. Chemicals such as nicotine, carbon monoxide, and benzene are just some of the four thousand deadly chemicals contained in a cigarette. When a cigarette is smoked thousands of chemicals are released, some of which are found naturally in the tobacco leaf, and others which are created through combustion or burning. Although the amount of chemicals in each cigarette is small, it is cumulative that the amount stored in the body increases with each puff of a cigarette. There is a small amount of chemicals in each cigarette puff, and there are ten puffs per cigarette. Over a year, at one pack of cigarettes a day, a smoker will inhale seventy three thousand puffs of dangerous chemicals. Nicotine is highly addictive and other substances such as cocaine and heroin are illegal, these chemicals are most likely to result in the smoker contracting cancer. The best way to reduce the potential health risks associated with these toxic chemicals is to quit smoking.


Nevertheless, every cigarette lit shortens your life; every puff kills your body. Cigarette smoking causes a number of respiratory diseases such as asthma, lung cancer and bronchitis plus it also leads to heart diseases. Another reason for banning smoking is that cigarette smoke affects the health of non-smokers and unborn babies. Non-smokers often suffer from eye and nose irritations, allergies and headaches as a result of inhaling second hand smoke. Passive smoking may cause lung cancer and during pregnancy can hinder the growth of the foetus and may even result in death. Children especially teenagers are addicted to smoking mainly by peer pressure and following what they think is cool and fashionable, but people should be able to live in a drug free community and to be able to be an individual to make the right decisions by not being forced by anyone else.


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Moreover, smoking is an expensive habit and it should be banned. Although smokers claim that it helps them to relax and release stress, the negative aspects of the habit out weigh the positive. It is a health hazard for both smokers and non-smokers and it is especially harmful to unborn babies. Smoking can cause teeth ad nails to turn yellow and can also affect your skin. Quite a lot has been done to prevent smoking. On cigarette packs health warnings and all its cigarette contents are clearly printed on the package and anti smoking advertisements have also been produced. But there are also those posters which promote smoking and are aimed mainly at young people and are especially designed to attract people to try smoking. The government should try and ban these types of advertisements or even as they are doing now advertising anti smoking posters and advertisements in cinemas and elsewhere. In spite of the money which the government receives from taxing cigarettes, the cost of medical treatment for these diseases exceeds this income. As a consequence, non-smoking taxpayers are forced to pay for the health costs of smokers, which make it a very unfair situation.


Clearly, the above points show how smoking can affect your health, how bad it is for you and how easily people can get addicted to it. Smoking can ruin your life and can easily harm your family especially by second hand smoke. There are also other ways to cure stress besides smoking such as physical activities like jogging or cycling, with a little effort, smoking can be stopped and put out of existence forever. Thus, in summary, smoking causes numerous illnesses which are expensive to treat. It disturbs non- smokers and is an unhealthy addiction. Therefore, cigarettes should definitely be banned so as to make the world a better place for everyone.





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WW1 Letter - Pretend U are in there shoes and u r dying

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Dear Family,


How are all of you? Unfortunately since the last time I visited, I’m not doing so well. I have just recently semi-recovered from a gas poisoning. My lungs have almost entirely burned. Slowly, I seem to be coming closer and closer to death. This may be my last letter and if it is please forgive me if I have done any of you harm. I am terribly sorry that I couldn’t open up my emotions to you all the last time I was there. I kept holding myself back and was very reserved with my feelings, but now I feel the time has come to tell everyone the truth before I die. I can’t seem to come to peace with my inner conscience. I wonder whether or not what I am doing is right or if it is inhumane. I never felt like this when I enlisted. All I ever thought about, then, was the glory of becoming a hero and fighting for my country. However, I have realized that none of this is true; war is neither glorious nor honorable. We live in constant terror.


How can anyone kill another human? Neither of them is superior nor inferior to the other. The only difference is that the two come from different national backgrounds, which shouldn’t mean anything at all. Despite the minor differences, the greatest similarity is that both are victims of war and terror. Regrettably, I too have become a victim of war. I enlisted with the thought that war is the only way, and I must have great pride for my country and with that pride, it was my duty to defend my homeland. A few weeks back, I was separated from my company and was forced to hide out in a shell hole by myself. I was frightened and startled by every little sound. Then, out of nowhere, a French soldier jumps into the hole with me. Instinctively, I stabbed him. I swear I didn’t know what I was doing at the time. I only wish it was me and not that poor soldier, who is a victim of war like me. That man suffered along painful death. I tried to help him, but it was too late. I looked through his belongings; his name was G�rard Duval and he had a wife and child at home waiting for his return. I had just widowed a wife and orphaned a child; what kind of man am I.


Anyone who thinks going to war is an honor is wrong. War only brings on extravagant numbers of deaths. It leaves children without parents, wives without husbands, and parents without sons. No one ever realizes the realities of war. Someone has to come out and tell the world that war should never be a solution. Everyone around me is dead; all my friends, former classmates, and fellow soldier have all died. I will too. I can feel it coming on. I only pray that the Lord forgives me for all my shortcomings, and that the future generation doesn’t commit the same mistake we did. I pray for peace for the world.


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I must end my letter here. My emotions have been exposed, and now the world has incites of an actual soldier who went to battle. I hope my story is told to the generations to come. Mom, I hope you feel better and may somehow one day overcome your cancer. May god watch over you all and protect you from all harm. Now in memory of all the recent deaths of my fellow soldiers, “All Quiet on the Western Front.”


With love,


Paul Bäumer





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Saturday, June 25, 2011

Community College

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Students who attend community college are more likely than students at a 4 year institution. Community college students leave school for a variety of reasons including personal and financial difficulties, frustration, and being academically unprepared for college.


Community college students leave due to personal and financial difficulties reasons. If they have personal conflicts in their home life it may be distracting enough to make them drop out. Community college students are more likely to have a job, a family, and a home with responsibilities. Funding for college is also a concern. Many can not afford to pay for their schooling and books, and they think at the time when they are signing up for classes they would be able to afford the classes and realize with the cost of books and tuition that their families need the money more then they need their education. A way you might solve this is to be concerned and be aware of the students and their needs this is a first step to reducing students dropping out.


Many students are frustrated in college for many reasons being, some of the teachers give out to much work. When a student has a job, family and home to take care of many find it to be too much for them to do their work and make good grades. There is also always a possibility that the student does not always understand what the teacher is teaching to them. The students become frustrated and feel their is no point in going back to school if they can not understand what is being taught to them and resulting in them not making good grades. One way to help these students with this problem is steer students to advising and counseling. If you see a student who is having a problem, talk to him or her about it and, if necessary, recommend academic counseling.


Students that is academically unprepared for college is one of the major reasons most community college students drop out. Many people attend a community college for a short certificate or to brush up on their knowledge. If they are unprepared they may drop out. The typical community college student has been out of high school for several years and may not be ready for the challenges of academic coursework. The adjustment to a college is difficult because the teachers speak, in effect, a different language than students do. Students like to utilize active learning, need concrete, reality based facts, and tend to prefer learning facts to larger unifying concepts. To help students with this try to accommodate students learning styles.


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In order to combat the loss of students’ community colleges need to identify those who are likely to dropout and find a way to keep them at school. Teachers and school facility need to pay more attention to students needs such as, help out more in the financial department and being more in tuned to students needs, also make the students feel more comfortable if they are needing help when it comes to school work and helping them understand, and make student more assured that if they are feeling overwhelmed with the work, school, and external conflicts they will have help or someone to talk to at the school.





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sister act

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Take Home Test


1a. To start off, Deloris Van Catiá, or shall I say Sister Mary Clarence had the same upbringing as the kids that she would soon be teaching (as seen on the movie Sister Act 1). Not knowing how to handle the challenging situations of babysitting adolescents, she reverted to the only way she knew how. Singing. Sister Mary Clarence made a statement telling the class that it would no longer be a “bird course” and that if they did not work hard then they would fail the course. She made the students abide by the dress code by taking off all hats and glasses and any other accessories that the school did not allow. With that in mind, with respect that she gave the class, in return she received it.


1b. Interpersonal skills- Sister Mary Clarence had a way with talking to the students and work with the other nuns in the school. She knew how to treat everybody even if they were different of not. An example of this is when Maria was asked to sing “Mary had a Little Lamb.” Maria did not know the song and when she told Sister Mary Clarence that she did not know the song, all of her peers laughed at her. The teacher quickly settled down the class and told the students that “it was not her fault that she doesn’t know ‘Mary had a Little Lamb.’ Maybe she had goat or maybe Mary had a dog.” The teacher then told Maria to sing what ever her heart wanted her to sing. Sister Mary Clarence handles each of her students in a different way. She understood that students require higher levels of guidance and directions.


Technical skills- Deloris Van Catiá was a Las Vegas showgirl before getting


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involved with teaching. She knew how to perform and every aspect around


performing. By knowing that, it was easy for her to come in and teach a class how to come together and sing as one choir. Making the learning more efficient, the class moved out of the dungy basement into the schools attic. When the finishing touches were done with the classroom, the environment was more conclusive to learning. Allowing the student to engulf the setting of the classroom as an element of productivity.


Conceptual skills- Sister Mary Clarence knew that if Saint Francis would win the National Choir State Championships, then the school would remain open for the duration of the school year or even longer. By knowing that, she took it into her own hands and made the music class into a top notch choir. Sister Mary Clarence main goal was just to teach and make it through the semester. By the end of the movie, Sister Mary Clarence was doing everything in her power to help the kids achieve something that they would have never dreamed of.


1c. Planning- Sister Mary Clarence had goals and objectives set out for her student so they would be able to go to the National Choir State Championships. First they need to have money before they even thought about going anywhere. After that, they needed a song and a style to be like. She wanted to show her students that she would do anything in her power to help them achieve their goals.


Organizing- In order to be an efficient leader, one must be able to organize


in a way that the students will be able to learn from. Sister Mary Clarence was


able to organize the community to help out and get involved with their children’s school. By getting the neighbor to help out, the music class was able to raise enough money to go to the choir contest. She also organized the nuns in the church to do a performance for the music class.


Motivating- Rita Watson, one would call her the ring leader of the class. She did not want to have anything to do with working in class, or even participating in it. She eventually chose to remove herself from that atmosphere. With the help of Sister Mary Catherine, Sister Mary Clarence realized that Rita Wilson was a great singer and that she really did love the lass and the students. Sister Mary Clarence got together with her and had a one on one talk. The next day, Rita Wilson was back in the classroom participating with the rest of the class. Amall was another kid in the class that needed some encouraging. He always talked about the black kings and queens of his people and how with their voice, changed the history of time. With his singing, he could not standup to what he was talking about. With a little motivational speech by Sister Mary Clarence, Amall was able to stand up and sing tall.


Ensuring Quality- Sister Mary Clarence valued productivity rather than just


activity. She had a high standard that she wanted all of her students to follow.


Knowing that if they studied and practiced hard then they would have a good


chance of winning the singing contest. To make sure that they were able to work hard, Sister Mary Clarence had her student warm-up their voice until it became second nature. The class practiced the same song until the song got old. By doing this, the students were prepared for anything that came their way. They had the skills and the talent to become number one.


1d. Some of the observations that I want to remember was how in the beginning she did not take any crap from anybody. She had a mindset that she was going to come in and teach a classroom. She would ultimately be the leader and they


would give her the respect that she deserved. I also like the way how she handled each individual in the classroom. Sister Mary Clarence knew that everybody was different and needed to be talked and have different roles in the music room.


. Sister Mary Clarence was a very effective teacher based on the three critical competencies. She had very much knowledge of music. As a Las Vegas Showgirl she knew the ends and outs of the music business. As a young girl who grew up in a dilapidated catholic school system, she knew the norms of how students would act. Sister Mary Clarence possessed an array of teaching skills and was able to apply it to her students in a well manor. By having the class put on a performance in from of their peers and having a piece put on for them by the nun teachers, they got to be on the giving and receiving end of the music trade. Sister Mary Clarence knew that the subject matter knowledge is not fixed but always evolving. At the National Choir State Championships, five minutes before Saint Francis was about to perform she told her students to take off their robes. “you guys should be comfortable, at least one of you.” She knew that to be in a choir does not mean that you have to conform to a certain style. the choir went out and sung Joyful Joyful in their own rendition and fashion. Thus conclude that Sister Mary Clarence was a very well effective teacher.














Please note that this sample paper on sister act is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on sister act, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on sister act will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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