Friday, October 14, 2011

Nelson Mondela

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Mandela of South Africa Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa in 14. He is the countrys first black president. He was elected by the countrys National Assembly. The Assembly had been chosen in South Africas first elections in which the countrys blacks were allowed to vote. Blacks won a majority of the Assembly seats, and the Assembly selected Mandela as president. These developments marked the beginning of a new era in South Africa. They resulted in blacks gaining control of the government after a long period of domination by the white minority. Since 11, Mandela had served as president of the African National Congress (ANC), a largely black group that opposed the South African governments policy of rigid racial segregation called apartheid(Connolly 000, 45). He had long been a leader of protests against apartheid and was imprisoned in 16 on charges of conspiring to overthrow the white-minority government. While in prison, he became a symbol of the struggle for racial justice. After being freed in 10, he led negotiations with white leaders that eventually brought an end to apartheid and established a nonracial system of government(Katz 15, 10). Mandela and then-President F. W. de Klerk of South Africa won the 1 Nobel Peace Prize. They were honored for their work to end apartheid and to enable the countrys nonwhites to fully participate in government(Dell 15, 180). Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Umtata, in the Transkei territory of South Africa. His father was a chief of the Xhosa-speaking Tembu tribe. Mandela gave up his right to succeed his father and instead prepared for a legal career. He attended the University College of Fort Hare, studied law by correspondence at Witwatersrand University, and received a law degree from the University of South Africa in 14. That year, in Soweto, he and a friend opened the first black law partnership in South Africa(Conolly 000, ). Mandela joined the ANC in 144 and helped form the organizations Youth League. In 148, the South African government established its policy of apartheid. The ANC called for equality for all races and began leading open resistance to the government. In 156, the government charged Mandela with treason and other serious crimes, but he was found not guilty in 161. The government had outlawed the ANC in 160, but Mandela renewed the protests and went into hiding. One night in 16 Nelson and Winnie were awakened by the South African police.(Derenberg 11, 104). The police took Nelson away to jail. . He was sentenced to life imprisonment. Nelson was sent to Robben Island. That was the states most guarded prison, ships couldnt come near it. It was considered a prison that no one could escape from. In 18 and 184 headlines started saying things like FREE MANDELA and LET MANDELA GO. People wanted to free Nelson so much that the whole world started to notice. Soon the United States and Great Britain were naming streets and parks after him. Human rights groups and universities were giving him honors and awards(Conolly 000, 155). In 184 a reporter was allowed to see Nelson for the first time. Nelson was offered his freedom in 185 by president Botha, but Nelson refused it. Botha said that in order to go free Nelson had to agree to a lot of conditions he had to live in the transkei and formally reject violence, among others. Nelson refused(Steoff 10 168). In 18 F.W. de Klerk became the president of South Africa instead of Botha. In 10 de Klerk made some amazing statements The ANC and sixty other organizations would be allowed to operate legally. Restrictions on three hundred and seventy-four people would be lifted. There would be a temporary halt to executions. The national state of emergency would soon be lifted. The government was committed to implementing a new constitution with no domination. And I am now in a position to announce that Mr. Nelson Mandela will be released at Victor Verster Prison. . . . We would like Mr. Mandelas release to take place in a dignified and orderly manner(Derenberg 11, 10). On Sunday the 11th of February 10 at 415 Nelson Mandela was finally free. He had been in jail for 7 years. After leaving prison, Mandela agreed to suspend an armed struggle the ANC had been waging against the South African government. Over the objections of more radical ANC members, he urged conciliation with South African President de Klerk and other government leaders. He sought to obtain political power for the countrys blacks in a peaceful way(Katz 15, ). In 10 and 11, the government repealed the laws that formed the legal basis of apartheid. But Mandela also negotiated an end to other forms of racial injustice, including laws that denied blacks the right to vote in national and provincial elections. The first truly open national elections in which all races could vote were held in April 14. The ANC won a majority of the seats in the countrys National Assembly, and Mandela became president(Conolly 000, 145). After his release in 10 he played a pivotal role as ANC president in negotiating the end of apartheid. In 1 he shared the Nobel Peace Prize with South African President F.W. de Clerk and a year later, at age 75, was elected president himself. On Dec. 10, 16 � amid chants of Power to the people! � Mandela signed the countrys new constitution, which includes sweeping human-rights and antidiscrimination guarantees. Mandela stepped down a president in June 1, having groomed Deputy President Thabo Mbeki as his successor for years. He left behind a country still troubled by racial hatred, crushing poverty and staggering violent crime. But he remains the most revered man in the country, credited with a remarkable transition from tyranny to democracy, and a commitment to reconciliation that saved the country from a violent bloodbath. After a messy divorce from his high-profile wife Winnie Madikizela in 16, he married Graca Machel, widow of former Mozambican president Samora Machel, on his 80th birthday in July 18. Upon his retirement, he said he planned to enjoy the peace and freedom that took a lifetime to achieve, living in his native Eastern Cape village, spending time with his wife and grandchildren and writing his memoirs(Conolly 000, 1).

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