Sunday, December 18, 2011

Leadership Development

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Leadership Development


It is evident that leadership is changing constantly. We live in a world were we have to change to survive, for instance, the September 11th attack on America. This affects the fundamentals we once took for granted- the way we manage, the way we work, the way we live our lives and the list is endless. Also, the recent events of the War on Iraq has America thinking, “ what will happen next ?” As the world changes, leadership changes, so we know the future will not be like the past. If we are to prosper and utilize leadership to its full potential our understanding of what leadership is has to change. As I study more about leadership, it seems the main problem is certainty. Throughout history, great leaders seem to always appear to know what to do in any situation at any time. Now, things are so different and uncertain. Leaders must learn to deal with change and uncertainties that accompany it. Leadership in the future will not only need to be able to cope with the emotional impact of change, but also help people in the organization to reach a new, more effective way of working.


According to Smith (17), leaders have the ability to develop a vision, the skill to articulate that vision in practical terms, and the skill to direct and assist others in executing the various aspects of that vision. They all focus on the ability to develop a vision and then communicate that vision to others. Smith (17) noted the core roles of leadership are a five-category classification of the central behaviors of leaders. The first category is The Vision Role. Leaders see beyond the events of the moment in the life of their organizations to glimpse what the organization and its membership can become.


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The vision role is played out through six distinct leadership activities


• Vision statements


• Visionary actions


• Goal setting


• Motivation


• Conceptual architecture


• Prophecy


Second is The Relationship Role where the leader practices and fosters relationships that help the organization achieve its mission. The relationship roles can be divided into four areas of leadership activity


• Teamwork


• Personnel structures


• Networks


• Representation


The leader, usually acting in consultation with others, exercises legitimate control over the organization and its members by defining which of the organization’s possible goals will be persuaded. This is The Control Role. In addition, the leader prioritizes the organization’s problems and determines resources devoted to their solution. The control role is enacted in five specific areas of activity


• Problem definition/solution


• Decision-making


• Delegation


• Work descriptions


• Conflict management


The Encouragement Role of a leader establishes a system of rewards and support that encourages and enables the organization’s members. The encouragement role involves three specific areas of leadership action


• Recognition


• Reward incentives


• Support


Finally, the leader of The Information Role sets up and maintains an information network that provides both internal and external communication channels. The information role consists of the following five categories


• Communication design


• Monitoring


• Informing


• Consulting


• Mentoring


Greger and Peterson (000) noted that leaders must have a vision first and then communicate that vision, but the leaders must do it in a way that will encourage everyone in his/her company to participate. The purpose of their article was to show the readers the difference between people who lead a company and those who simply run a business. They both believe that being in a position of authority, “being in charge”, doesn’t automatically make a person a leader. They wanted to make that distinction clear and present a profile of what they believe is the key to being a successful leader in the new millennium. I agree with the authors. I believe that being in charge does not automatically make you a leader. If I were a manager for a hotel and no one listened to what I had to say nor followed my directions and ideas, I would not consider myself a LEADER! A leader should have followers. A leader must possess a certain characteristic that will encourage others to want to follow them no matter what. Many leaders think that because they are leaders people should do what they are told. This idea in essence is true, but any leader should want their followers to follow them because they respect their decisions and their insight, not because they are the “boss”.


Donald G. Krause (17) has identified seven factors that form the essence of leadership Self-Discipline, Purpose, Accomplishment, Responsibility, Knowledge, Laddership, and Example. He has termed these seven factors as the SPARKLE Principles. The principles were developed with the idea that they would be used as a measure or gauge of the quality of leadership. Krause (17) believes the closer a person’s behavior follows these principles, the stronger leader he /she becomes. Learning how to use the SPARKLE principles in your job and in your life can make you a more effective leader and, as result, a more powerful executive.


Self-Discipline means that a leader tends to live by a set of rules or principles that he/she determines are appropriate for him and acceptable to his/her constituents. A leader does not need external motivation to ensure performance. A leader needs confidence that whatever tasks he/she is giving is the best one for everyone as a whole.


Purpose means that a leader develops in tense determination to achieve his vision and his/her objectives. Intense determination creates high morale and spirit among constituents. This allows the leader to effectively employ both personal and organizational power to accomplish goals. The leader uses this power to direct and control the efforts to his/her followers.


Accomplishment means that a leader defines results in terms of meeting the needs of his/her constituents. Successful results are the foundation of leadership. When a leader embraces the duties and obligations that grow from the trust and power given him/her this is Responsibility. A strong leader owns up to the results of his decisions and actions and shares their consequences along with his/her constituents.


Knowledge is the foundation of successful leadership. Krause (17) states that knowledge has three aspects. He first, fundamental knowledge, deals with studying science, history, and human nature; in other words, learning the basic of the art of leadership. The second, strategic knowledge concerns understanding the needs and goals of both constituents and competitors and planning effective operations to reach objectives. The third, tactical knowledge focuses on uncovering evolving threats and opportunities and responding swiftly and appropriately to them, within the strategic framework, through innovation and improvisation.


Laddership means that a leader understands the special nature of the social and moral contract between leaders and their constituents. The leader is dependent upon his/her followers for power and, to a large extent, the ability to produce results. Therefore, the leader must work cooperatively with them to reach agreed-upon objectives.


Example means that a leader’s actions become a model for the actions of his constituents group. Further, the leaders character sets the moral tone of leadership. The standards the leader uses become the benchmarks for the group. In all situations, the leader is observed and copied; at all times, the leader demonstrates preferred or ideal behavior by the leaders own actions. The leader sets the example whether he intends to or not! Donald G. Krause’s seven factors of leadership are different from the readings studied in class. Krause focuses on the quality of leadership, where as, the readings focuses on the development of leaders.


There is a study that identifies the three most important challenges facing leaders in a changing business environment (Brown, 001). Increasing speed and flexibility rated the highest compared to building/maintaining a strong top leadership team and developing /retaining potential leaders. It was stated the leaders of today must cope with a unique set of challenges. Technological, social, and economic forces compel leaders to address these issues in order to stay ahead of the competition. The significant problems a leader face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking he/she was at when they created them.


Ron and Susan Zemke (001) believe for the last two decades, leadership has been increasingly thought of as an organizational attribute that is separate and unique from management. At the same time, leadership is now thought to be more broadly necessary than in earlier, more stable decades. Uncertain times require leadership that saturates the entire organization. Contemporary leadership development aims to build the capacity of potential leaders to move the organization along a path that will ensure success and survival in a rapidly changing, competitive world. Leaders must be able to define and communicate strategic programs for the organization.


Leaders will need to integrate differences and encourage both interdependence and diversity (Iles, 001). Old leadership methods won’t work anymore; instead innovation, creativity, and flexibility is needed in leadership styles. By researching and reading about this topic I am able to develop better leadership abilities. Each article and book provide tips and techniques I need to succeed in the hospitality industry. I will now be able to exercise power and lead with confidence in all situations by developing special leadership skills that are needed to build a successful team.


References


Smith, D. (17). The practical executive and leadership. Lincolnwood NTC Business Books.


Krause, D. G. (17). The way of the leader. New York The Berkley Publishing Group.


Greger, K., & Peterson, J. (000, February). Leadership profiles for the new millennium. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 41(1), 16-.


Brown, D. (001, April). Leadership development that pays for itself. Canadian HR Reporter, 14(7), 7.


Zemke, R., & Zemke, S. (001, August). Where do leaders come from? Training, 8(8), 44-48.


Iles, P. (001, September). Leadership and leadership development Time for a new direction? The British Journal of Administrative Management 7, -.











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