Thursday, April 12, 2012

Violence in Flannery O'Connor

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1 INCORRECT What is the basic structural unit of the body?





A) tissue





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B) organ








C) organelle








D) cell








Feedback Incorrect An organ is comprised of two or more tissues.











INCORRECT Which of the following are the smallest cells?





A) human ovum








B) red blood cell








C) white blood cell








D) smooth muscle cell








Feedback Incorrect Smooth muscle cells are larger than blood cells.











CORRECT Two major parts of a cell are the nucleus and _____.





A) membrane








B) organelle








C) reticulum








D) mitochondrion








Feedback Correct Answer All cells (eukaryotic) consist of a nuclear area and the fluid and structures that surround it, the cytoplasm, enclosed by a plasma membrane.











4 INCORRECT A ribosome is an example of a _____.





A) nuclear membrane








B) organelle








C) inclusion








D) protein








Feedback Incorrect An organelle is a structure within a cell with a known function; the ribosomes are associated with protein synthesis.











5 INCORRECT A cell membrane allows only needed substances to pass and is therefore called _____.





A) permeable








B) passive








C) active








D) selective








Feedback Incorrect Passive membranes use no ATP and follow only physical laws.











6 INCORRECT A human cell membrane is comprised of the following except which one?





A) lipids








B) proteins








C) carbohydrates








D) nucleic acids








Feedback Incorrect Membranes contain carbohydrate sections.











7 INCORRECT The following terms belong together except which one?





A) protein








B) phospholipid








C) hydrophilic ends








D) hydrophobic ends








Feedback Incorrect The cell membrane has phospholipid molecules that have water soluble (hydrophilic) as well as water insoluble (hydrophobic) portions.











8 INCORRECT The following molecules freely pass through a cell membrane except which one?





A) oxygen








B) carbon dioxide








C) amino acids








D) certain lipids








Feedback Incorrect Carbon dioxide gas diffuses freely.











CORRECT Hormones come in contact with the _____ molecules in a membrane.





A) lipid








B) rod-like protein








C) globular protein








D) integral protein








Feedback Correct Answer Rod-like proteins are coiled and extend from the interior to exterior of a cell membrane and can serve as an attachment for hormones and other molecules, serving as receptor sites.











10 INCORRECT The selective movement of ions through a membrane occurs through areas called _____.





A) pores








B) peripheral protein regions








C) channels








D) receptors








Feedback Incorrect Peripheral proteins do not usually function as channels.











11 INCORRECT The _____ proteins in a membrane function as enzymes.





A) peripheral








B) structural








C) integral








D) rod-like








Feedback Incorrect The peripheral proteins line the inner surface of the cell membrane and act as enzymes that increase certain reaction rates.











1 INCORRECT The cells in heart muscle are often held together by areas called _____.





A) desmosomes








B) tight junctions








C) gap junctions








D) intercellular fluid








Feedback Incorrect Gap junctions are areas of tubular channels that interconnect cardiac muscle as well as muscle in the digestive tract.











1 INCORRECT The inside lining of the digestive tract is lined with cells that are held together by _____.





A) gap junctions








B) tight junctions








C) connective tissue








D) desmosomes








Feedback Incorrect Tight junctions are a type of intercellular junction that hold together certain cells; there is no connective tissue in the inner lining of the digestive tube.











14 INCORRECT The _____ contains enzymes that are associated with protein synthesis.





A) mitochondrion








B) ribosome








C) lysosome








D) Golgi body








Feedback Incorrect Lysosomes contain catabolic enzymes.











15 INCORRECT The _____ functions to package molecules into vesicles that can be transported out of a cell.





A) ribosome








B) nucleus








C) Golgi apparatus








D) centriole apparatus








Feedback Incorrect The centrioles function in cell division.











16 CORRECT A combination of a sugar with a protein is a _____.





A) lipoprotein








B) glycoprotein








C) complex protein








D) nuclear protein








Feedback Correct Answer Glycoproteins are combinations of protein and some sugars that are packaged by the Golgi apparatus and function in several ways including certain activities of hormones and lymphocytes.











17 INCORRECT The _____ functions as a sac-like or tubular network of structures that provides transport.





A) ribosome








B) lysosome








C) endoplasmic reticulum








D) centriole microtubules








Feedback Incorrect Centrioles only function in cell division.











18 CORRECT The _____ is the source of most of the cellular energy.





A) ribosome








B) cytosol








C) mitochondrion








D) lysosome








Feedback Correct Answer The mitochondria are the enzyme-rich organelles that perform the metabolic syntheses that produce most of the ATP energy.











1 INCORRECT The cristae are the shelf-like portions of the _____.





A) mitochondria








B) ribosome








C) inclusion bodies








D) centrosome








Feedback Incorrect The mitochondria inner surface is lined with folds called cristae which contain enzymes used in energy production by synthesis of nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate.











0 INCORRECT The _____ contain enzymes that are used to degrade foreign particles as well as cell structures.





A) centrioles








B) lysosomes








C) peroxisomes








D) mitochondria








Feedback Incorrect Centrioles function in cell division.











1 INCORRECT Catalase is an enzyme, which degrades _____.





A) hydrogen peroxide








B) cell membranes








C) bacteria








D) peroxidase








Feedback Incorrect Catalase converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water, rendering it harmless.











INCORRECT The _____ is the organelle that plays a complex function in cell reproduction.





A) centriole








B) centrosome








C) chromosome








D) lysosome








Feedback Incorrect Each centrosome organelle is comprised of two centrioles; chromosomes are chemical aggregates that contain DNA but are not considered organelles.











CORRECT The structures that cause fluids and mucus to move across their surface are the _____.





A) flagella








B) basal bodies








C) cilia








D) microfilaments








Feedback Correct Answer The cilia are processes of a cell which move in a wavelike pattern; each is attached to a basal body. Ciliated cells can be found lining the respiratory as well as other membranes.











4 INCORRECT Flagella can occur on the cells of the following except





A) sperm








B) kidneys








C) intestine








D) testes








Feedback Incorrect Sperm cells all have flagella.











5 CORRECT Membranous sacs that contain fluids or particles for transport are called the _____.





A) microtubules








B) microfilaments








C) vesicles








D) inclusion bodies








Feedback Correct Answer Vesicles are sacs that are formed for the purpose of packaging something for transport; inclusions are particles in a cell without a known function nor membrane.











6 INCORRECT The protein actin is found in _____, which results in some type of movement or contraction.





A) Golgi bodies








B) microfilaments








C) microtubules








D) cilia








Feedback Incorrect Microtubules do not cause movements.











7 INCORRECT The following belong together except which one?





A) microtubule








B) microfilament








C) aid in DNA movement








D) comprise an internal skeleton








Feedback Incorrect Microtubules provide a means of maintaining the shape of cells as well as play a role in cell division; microfilaments are more important for allowing movement to occur.











8 INCORRECT What is the term for chemical particles in a cell which appear lifeless and have no obvious function?





A) inclusion








B) organelle








C) vesicle








D) macromolecule








Feedback Incorrect Organelles all have specific functions.











INCORRECT The following are inclusions except which one?





A) glycogen








B) melanin








C) lipids








D) vesicles








Feedback Incorrect Melanin is an inclusion pigment.











0 CORRECT The movement of particles from higher to lower concentration is termed _____.





A) active transport








B) dialysis








C) diffusion








D) osmosis








Feedback Correct Answer Diffusion causes molecules to move from were they are more concentrated to areas where they are less concentrated until a net equilibrium is reached.











1 INCORRECT The following will increase the rate of diffusion except which factor?





A) increased temperature








B) increased concentration








C) increased molecular weight








D) shorter distances








Feedback Incorrect Molecules obviously move faster through shorter distances.











INCORRECT Movement of particles from higher to lower concentrations through a membrane, such as in dialysis, occurs by _____.





A) diffusion








B) active transport








C) osmosis








D) filtration








Feedback Incorrect Osmosis is the movement of water only.











INCORRECT Insulin usually increases the movement of glucose through a cell membrane by a process called _____.





A) facilitation diffusion








B) osmosis








C) active transport








D) pinocytosis








Feedback Incorrect Movement of glucose into a cell does not use any ATP, therefore is not actively transported.











4 CORRECT Membranes that have a higher osmotic pressure on one side, tend to _____.





A) repel water








B) draw water towards that side








C) repel water from that side








D) stop the movement of water








Feedback Correct Answer Osmotic pressure is a force that attracts water towards the higher pressure (concentration).











5 INCORRECT Hypertonic solutions tend to causes cells to _____.





A) burst








B) increase in diameter








C) shrink








D) intake water








Feedback Incorrect Cells will lose water and shrink in a hypertonic media because of the high osmotic pressure.











6 INCORRECT Normal isotonic sodium chloride solution is _____%.





A) 10








B) 0.








C) 5








D) 1








Feedback Incorrect A 0.% mixture of NaCl will be the same isotonic value as human blood; a 5% solution of glucose is also isotonic.











7 INCORRECT The movement of a salt through a membrane, such as in a kidney, because of pressure differences is _____.





A) filtration








B) dialysis








C) diffusion








D) active transport








Feedback Incorrect Movement in dialysis is caused by concentration differences.











8 CORRECT Hydrostatic refers to pressure of _____.





A) salts








B) the membrane








C) solutes








D) the solvent








Feedback Correct Answer In biological systems, water is the solvent; water pressure is hydrostatic pressure.











CORRECT Movement of molecules from low to high concentrations is _____.





A) facilitated diffusion








B) active transport








C) passive transport








D) dialysis








Feedback Correct Answer In active transport the membrane utilizes energy to transport molecules across a membrane against their concentration gradients.











40 CORRECT The ability of leukocytes to engulf bacteria is due to the process of _____.





A) phagocytosis








B) pinocytosis








C) endocytosis








D) receptor-mediated endocytosis








Feedback Correct Answer In phagocytosis, large particles are brought into a cell by a method that traps particles in a membrane pseudopod or extension; pinocytosis is reserved for small particles such as water.











41 INCORRECT In receptor-mediated endocytosis, an LDL particle of cholesterol is attracted to cells that contain _____.





A) lipoproteins








B) apoprotein-B receptors








C) HDL








D) cholesterol








Feedback Incorrect High-density lipoprotein (HDL) does not bind to apoprotein-B receptors.











4 INCORRECT During mitosis, the number of chromosomes _____.





A) remains the same








B) is doubled








C) is cut in half








D) changes to 46








Feedback Incorrect Chromosome numbers are reduced to half during meiosis.











4 CORRECT The process, which divides the cytoplasm in half, is specifically termed _____.





A) karyokinesis








B) cytokinesis








C) mitosis








D) meiosis








Feedback Correct Answer There are two phases of division, karyokinesis in which the nuclear content divides into two daughter nuclei and cytokinesis in which the rest of the cytoplasm divides in half.











44 INCORRECT The process that results in daughter cells with half of the original chromosome number is _____.





A) mitosis








B) prophase








C) meiosis








D) karyokinesis








Feedback Incorrect Prophase is a phase of cell division.











45 CORRECT At which stages does the chromosome number double?





A) prophase








B) metaphase








C) interphase








D) telophase








Feedback Correct Answer Even before any visible movement of chromosomes becomes evident, their number has doubled during interphase.











46 CORRECT Chromosomes are aligned along the equatorial line during the _____ stage of division.





A) prophase








B) metaphase








C) anaphase








D) telophase








Feedback Correct Answer Chromosomes are paired along a line midway in the cell during metaphase, before they are brought to the poles by the spindle fibers.











47 CORRECT The _____ stages occurs when two daughter cells have completely formed.





A) interphase








B) prophase








C) metaphase








D) telophase








Feedback Correct Answer During the last stage, telophase, the daughter cells are formed and new membranes are created that wrap around the cell and the nucleus.











48 INCORRECT Two chromatids are attached at the _____ region.





A) terminal








B) centromere








C) centrosome








D) centriole








Feedback Incorrect The centromere is the region near the middle of a chromosome that represents the attachment of two arms of a chromosome which are termed chromatids.











4 CORRECT The centromeres divide during the _____ stage of mitosis.





A) prophase








B) metaphase








C) anaphase








D) telophase








Feedback Correct Answer During anaphase, which precedes telophase, the centromeres and chromosomes pull apart and begin migration towards the poles.











50 INCORRECT The process _____ explains how embryonic cells become specialized and diverse.





A) mitosis








B) meiosis








C) interphase








D) differentiation








Feedback Incorrect Differentiation is the process in which a single cell can produce daughter cells that are different from each other; in this way, the few embryonic cells can become the many diverse bone, blood, muscle, and other cell types.











51 INCORRECT The main division process in the early embryo is _____.





A) mitosis








B) meiosis








C) karyokinesis








D) metastasis








Feedback Incorrect Metastasis is an abnormal spreading of cells such as cancer, to other locations.











5 INCORRECT Cancer cells can disseminate to other areas by a process called _____.





A) metaphase








B) anaplasia








C) hyperplasia








D) metastasis








Feedback Incorrect Hyperplasia refers to increases in cell numbers.











5 CORRECT During hyperplasia, cells are dividing at a rapid rate and may progress towards a _____ state.





A) cancer








B) hypertrophy








C) metaplasia








D) metastasis








Feedback Correct Answer Hyperplasia differs from mitosis in that the rate of division is faster than normal and the control mechanisms that usually limit growth are no longer operative; this may lead to cancer.











54 INCORRECT Which channel-blocker medication can be used to treat hypertension or angina pectoris?





A) sodium








B) calcium








C) potassium








D) chloride








Feedback Incorrect Calcium channel blockers are used to treat conditions such as hypertension because they weaken myocardial force, slow the heart rate, and increase coronary flow.











55 INCORRECT What type of cell is a bacterium?





A) eukaryotic








B) archaeal








C) prokaryotic








D) viroid








Feedback Incorrect Viroid refers to sub-viral inanimate particles, that may





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