Friday, May 4, 2012

conflict management

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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT


Types


Approaches


DEFINITION OF CONFLICT


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Chaotic, negative, harmful, disagreement?


PROCESS in which


Perception of one party being negatively affected…


On an issue of importance to the perceiver


Views on Conflict


TRADITIONAL-seen as dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication, lack of openness & trust between people, failure of managers to be responsive to needs & aspirations of employees.


HUMANISTIC- As natural & inevitable outcome in any group.


INTERACTIONISTIC-a positive force that is necessary for a group effectiveness-keeps it viable, self critical & creative.


Functional vs Dysfunctional Conflict


FUNCTIONAL WHEN CONFLICT SUPPORTS GOALS OF GROUP & IMPROVES ITS PERFORMANCE


DYSFUNCTIONAL WHEN HINDERS GROUP PERFORMANCE & CAN BE OF THREE TYPES


TASK CONFLICT- OVER CONTENT & GOALS OF WORK


RELATIONSHIP CONFLICT


PROCESS CONFLICT -OVER HOW WORK GETS DONE


CONFLICT PROCESS


FIVE STAGES


I. POTENTIAL OPPOSITION OR INCOMPATIBILITY


II COGNITION & PERSONALIZATION


III INTENTION


IV BEHAVIOR


V OUTCOMES


PROCESS-Stage I Incompatibility


Conditions.


Dysfunctional Communication.


Structure in terms of size, degree of specialization, role clarity & centralization of authority, leadership style, degree of dependence between groups.


Personal variables.


This stage indicates presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise.


Process Stage II


Perception & Awareness


PERCEIVED CONFLICT -awareness by 1 or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Not personalized.


FELT CONFLICT-getting emotionally involved in a conflict creating anxiety, frustration or hostility.


This is the stage where conflict issues get defined & parties decide what the conflict is all about. It also brings forth the emotional linkages to the issue.


PROCESS Stage III Intentions


Conflict Handling Intentions.


COMPETING Desire to satisfy one’s interest Regardless of impact of other party to the conflict.


COLLABORATING Desire to satisfy fully concerns of all parties.


AVOIDING Desire to withdraw or suppress a conflict.


ACCOMODATING willingness to place opponent’s interests above own.


COMPROMISING Willingness to give up something.


PROCESS Stage V Outcomes


FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES -IMPROVES QUALITY OF DECISIONS, STIMULATES CREATIVITY & INNOVATION, ENCOURAGES INTEREST & CURIOSITY, OPEN COMMUNICATION, TRANSPARENCY, FOSTERS ENVIRONMENT OF SELF EVALUATION & CHANGE


DYSFUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES DISSOLVE COMMON TIES, DISCONTENT , DESTRUCTION OF GROUP


CONFLICT MANAGEMENT


USE OF RESOLUTION AND STIMULATION TECHNIQUES TO ACHIEVE THE DESIRED LEVEL OF CONFLICT


CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES


PROBLEM SOLVING Face to face open discussion


SUPERORDINATE GOALS Creating shared goals


EXPANSION OF RESOURCES Creating win-win situation


AVOIDANCE Withdraw or supress


SMOOTHING Playing down differences


COMPROMISE Giving something of value


AUTHORITATIVE COMMAND Using formal authority


ALTERING THE HUMAN VARIABLE Training for attitudinal change


ALTERING THE STRUCTURAL VARIABLES Changing formal structure& interaction patterns


CONFLICT STIMULATION TECHNIQUES


COMMUNICATION Using ambiguous or threatening messages


BRINGING IN OUTSIDERS With values conflicting with group


RESTRUCTURING ORGANIZATION Realigning work groups, altering rules , interdependence


APPOINTING DEVIL’S ADVOCATE Designating a critic to argue against majority positions


NEGOTIATION


PROCESS


BETWEEN PARTIES


IN EXCHANGE F GOODS OR SERVICES


ATTEMOPT TO AGREE UPON THE EXCHANGE RATE FOR THEM


BARGAINING STRATEGIES


DISTRIBUTIVE BARGAINING- SEEKS TO DIVIDE UP A FIXED AMAOUNT OF RESOURCES A WIN -LOSE SITUATION


INTEGRATIVE BARGAINING-SEEKS ONE OR MORE SETTLEMENTS THAT CREATE WIN- WIN SITUATION





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