Monday, June 18, 2012

Science Lake Field Trip

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Environmental Focus

B. Sample as many habitats as possible to see what type of organisms live in each. Then answer the following

What are the life zones in this lake, and what kinds of creatures inhabit them?

You can separate this lake into two zones. The Linetic zone, which is the middle area of the lake contains most fish and other larger living organisms such as turtles. The other zone in this lake is called the Litoral zone. The Litoral zone is the area where the water meets the bank. This zone contains various forms of plant life and other smaller organisms.

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How do dissolved oxygen levels in the water change through the seasons? When this lake freezes over in the winter (or if it did), what effect on oxygen levels does that have? Why?

The melting of the frozen lake in the spring creates a circulation of nutrients and oxygen. This melting creates a ‘turn over’ in the lake, which lets the lake start fresh come spring time.

How might human manipulations that occur here (such as fish stocking, herbicide application, fishing, etc.) affect lake processes?

Fish stocking can be good for a lake. The stocking of more of certain species of fish can help a lake/pond establish a stronger ecosystem. Although, if too much of a new species is introduced to a lake it could destroy its ecosystem. For instance, if a large amount of Northern Pike (large predator fish) were introduced into a pond full of mostly small predator/prey fish it could disrupt the ponds fragile ecosystem. The Pike would devour all the other fish, while the Pike itself would have no natural predator to help control its own population. Over fishing and herbicide can diminish fish populations to a point where the lakes ecosystem could collapse.

What causes algal blooms in some lakes and not in others? Describe the natural and cultural causes of eutrophication in a eutrophic lake?

Lakes with little current and in direct sun light can normally have more algal blooms then lakes in shady areas, with stronger currents. If a lake is near a farm, the spraying of pesticides that may run off into a lake can cause the lake to have large amounts of algal blooms.

How can algal blooms result in late summer fish kills?

If a lake is consumed by algal blooms it can have detrimental effects on the fish in the lake. There will be less space for the fish to survive which can in it self lower the lakes population of certain fish. Too many algal blossoms in a lake can actually suffocate the fish, because too many algal blossoms can cut down on the lakes natural circulation.



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internet and music

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Internet and Music

Storage of music as computer audio files and downloading of Audio files

is becoming increasingly important.

1. What is audio file compression and why is it important for WWW music?

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1. Summarise in your own words the different audio file formats from the list here. Try

to make comments about the quality of sound and the file size.

. MP audio is rapidly becoming the standard. How does MP manage to fit music

into relatively small files?

. MP technology is open standard, this has been one of the reasons for its rapid

spread. What does open standard mean? (MPs)

4. How does the British company EMI intend to allow access to its music catalog.

What will customers have to do to acquire music from EMI?

My answers

1. Audio file compression is when you compress the data in an audio file which allows you to fit more music into it.

. Some of the audio file formats available are

WAV Developed by Microsoft and is one of the primary formats of uncompressed audio. A song would be very big in file size if you wanted good quality because of WAV’s 16bit format and because its uncompressed.

AU Developed by Sun Microsystems. Less popular then WAV and stores raw audio data at up to cd quality of 44.1 khz, 16bit and channels. Unlike the WAV format, AU can store up to any number of channels giving it the possibility of theatre like sound quality.

MP short for MPEG layer III. Developed by German company Fraunhofer Gesellschaft and presented in 18. Mp is famous and used worldwide. A factor of its widespread is its audio compression of 101 and nice quality at an average of 44.1khz and 18kbps. Additional data can be added to mp such as artist, song title, album, comment and genre. ALSO mp can come in many bitrates and sampling rates.

SHOUTCast SHOUTCast is created by Nullsoft, the makers of the famous Winamp audio player. It streams mp at different bitrates and sampling rates. This is widely used in Internet radio stations and quality can suffer if connection doesn’t remain constant.

Real Audio primary use in net radio. Like SHOUTCast it’s a streaming audio but uses real audio format and because of its streaming nature on the net radios the quality is poor because files need to keep small.

VQF Developed by Yamaha and has a slightly better compression ratio then mp. A specific player required to playback this format. Quality of this not as good as mp, but compensated by the program using different frequencies to tune it into ‘better’ quality by buffering out frequencies otherwise ignored by our brains.

Liquid Audio developed by liquid audio. MPEG layer encoding and 44.1khz sampling and 6kbs. Some people might prefer this because it exceeds just delivering music. It allows you to include into it � a still picture, artist information, playback restrictions, genre, lyrics, promos, credits etc. but must have specific program.

. Mp manages to fit into relatively small files because of its excellent compression of 101 which would make it roughly 1mb � 1min in 18kbs � 44.1khz.

4. Open standard means that it is not under one corporation, no corporation controls mp.

5. British company EMI plans to allow people to access their database of mp files and pick what ones they like to burn to a CD.

To acquire EMI files you just have to select what you like and they predict you have to pay a certain fee for each song you choose.



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Tuesday, June 5, 2012

My Favorite Day

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My Favorite Day

I wake up early, today is a special day. As I step into the shower, I begin to think of what an exciting day I have ahead of me. I take my newly washed and dried uniform off the hanger, and put it on with such pride and dignity. I start to notice all the differences there are from a normal morning, than that of a game day. Such as the things I eat, only fruits. On any other day I will eat anything. Also, the way I feel. On a normal days the sun doest shine the same, the grass doesn’t feel as wet and ready to be played on, and the way the wind hits me is different.

I get into my car, turn off the radio, and focus during the drive to the field. I am thinking off the many things I have learned through soccer, about life. From the triumphs and victories, to the hardships and struggles. Many of the lessons in life, I have learned from playing soccer. I have learned what its like to be the very best and what its like to be the worst. The feeling of being at the top of your game, hardly any flaws, and then realizing that all can come crashing down when you begin to think too big. It’s like you have the world at your feet, and one thing happens and it all disappears. Now, back to where you started, so many years ago, you’re at the beginning. My mind still wandering I think of the emotional struggles I have had playing soccer. From losing teammates and coaches, losing games, and getting hurt. All which have an effect with the way you play.

I come to the field and walk over to my team’s side. As I start to put my equipment on, my mind is set on the next 80 minutes. I try to imagine the game being played in my head. I can see all the right things being played out, but also can see the flaws and mistakes we’ve made in the past and now is when we fix them.

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We begin to warm-up. All anxiety and anticipation is gone, because now we are 10 minutes away from starting the game. As Captain, I run the team. I begin the drills until it’s time for equipment check. Five minutes has passed and the referees are now calling us to the sidelines. They do their check and ask for Captains to do the coin flip. I walk to the referees and my opponents completely focused and ready to play. “Players, shake hands,” says the referee. Then he flips the coin, we call, “Heads.” We win the flip, we want ball. We shake hands again and back to our team to head last words from Coach and to be announced.

The next thing I hear is , “ Starting, at stopper, number 18.” The crowd goes wild as I run to the center of the field. I stand on the center circle alone, waiting for my opponent’s handshake, we exchange, and then I run to my team and get them fired up. “ Go Muskies,” we shout loudly.

It is now exactly 0 seconds before kick-off. All I hear is the ref saying, “ Goalie, you ready? Keep you ready?” Then, the whistle is blown, I run to the ball and run my favorite play. I am now in my sanctuary, where no one else can come, I am now living my dream.

Forty Minutes has passed, and the score 0-0, fatigue is setting in. Luckily, we have a 10 minute break, so I can rebuild my concentration on the game alone. No fans, no coaches, no ref’s, only girls doing the thing they love. I listen to coach speak of the things we need to improve, and things we need to continue doing. I am now ready to go give my heart for another 40 minutes, without ever giving up. Then, I step back on the field and heard the exact words I heard 50 minutes ago, “ Goalie, you ready? Keep, you ready?” Then, the whistle is blown, and it all begins again.

Until this moment the game was equal, but our team has a corner kick and I am feeling lucky. Kate kicks the ball to the same place every time, which is to me. This time I take a step back before she kicks and moved in while the ball is floating in the air. I stick my head out, and make contact. It’s going in is all I am thinking. Sure enough, top left corner, perfect placement. The game is now ours 1-0, so we decide to play 5 back on defense, although still trying to score another goal to ensure our victory. The final whistle blows, we have won! My teammates and coaches on the bench, run onto the field to celebrate with us. We shake hands with the other team and the referees, and continue to celebrate our victory.



Walking off the field, I feel pride and joy that we have just beat a team no one thougth was possible to beat. I take off my equipment, walk to my car, and drive home, excited about the next game.



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Safety

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Mud turtles have green or dark brown smooth shells with no patterns on them. They are small turtles; only to 5 inches long, and eat tadpoles, worms, insects, and plants.To identify whether the following changes are physical or chemical.

Safety Precautions The safety precautions you should know for an experimental lab are always wear safety goggles so chemicals don’t burn your eyes, for girls and boys you should tie your hair back and roll up your sleeves so your hair or sleeves don’t catch on fire. You should always stand up in a lab because you react faster and keep the aisles clear. If you’re using a Bunsen Burner never leave it unattended, and if your checking the odour of a chemicals always use your hands to waft the fumes carefully towards you.

Chemical spills should be cleaned instantly. Also make sure the lab table is clear of any flammable items. No metals are to be dumped into the sink, same with Barium Nitrate and copper sulfate. Any acid is corrosive.

Materials Zinc Hydrochloric Acid (6 mol) Lead Nitrate

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Vinegar Potassium Iodide Baking Soda

Copper Sulfate Barium Nitrate Magnesium

Bunsen Burner Matches Test Tube Rack

Pipette Scoopula Water

Test Tubes Bromothymol Blue

Procedure

1) Magnesium and Oxygen

1. Put safety goggles on if you don’t already have them on for all experiments.

. Plug the Bunsen burner into the gas valve turn the gas on.

. When the flame appeared make sure it is blue.

4. Hold the Magnesium with tweezers in the flame.

5. Observe and record the results.

6. When a spark of white light has shown put the magnesium into a beaker of water.

7. Clean up the Bunsen burner and station for all experiments.

) Zinc and Hydrochloric Acid

1. Repeat step number one.

. Take a test tube from a test tube rack.

. Scoop 1- scoops of zinc up with a scoopula and put it into the test tube.

4. Put 1- drops of Hydrochloric acid with an eye dropper into the test tube with the

5. Mix it together and observe the results.

6. Dispose of the chemicals when you’re done. Clean up station.

) Lead Nitrate and Potassium Iodide

1. Repeat step number one.

. Take a test tube from a test tube rack.

. Put 1- drops of lead nitrate with an eyedropper into the test tube.

4. Put 1- drops of Potassium iodide with an eyedropper into the test tube with the lead nitrate in the same test tube.

5. Observe and record the results

6. Dispose the chemical when you’re done. Clean up station.

4) Vinegar and Baking Soda

1. Repeat step number one.

. Take a test tube from the test tube rack.

. Using a pipette place mL of Vinegar with an eyedropper into the test tube.

4. Place 1- scoops some baking soda with a scoopula and put it into the test tube with the vinegar.

5. Observe and record the results.

6. Dispose the chemical when you’re done. Clean up the station

5) Copper Sulfate and Barium Nitrate

1. Repeat step number one.

. Take a test tube from the test tube rack.

. Squeeze - drops of Copper sulfate into the test tube.

4. Squeeze - drops of Barium Nitrate into the test tube with the Copper sulfate.

5. Observe and record the results.

6. Dispose the chemicals when you’re done. Clean up the station.

6) Vinegar and Bromothymol Blue Indicator

1. Repeat step number one.

. Take a test tube from the test tube rack.

. Put 1- drops of vinegar with an eyedropper into the test tube.

4. Squeeze - drops Bromothymol blue indicator into the test tube with the vinegar.

5. Observe and record the results.

6. Dispose the chemicals when you’re done. Clean up station.

7) Copper Sulfate and Water

1. Repeat step number one.

. Take a test tube from the test tube rack.

. Scoop 1- scoops of copper sulfate with a scoopula and put it into the test tube.

4. Put some water with an eyedropper into the test tube with the copper sulfate.

5. Observe and record the results.

6. Dispose the chemicals when you’re done. Clean up station.

Observations

Station # Name of Starting Materials Description of Starting Materials Description of Products Once they React Chemical or Physical Change

1. 1.Magnesium. Oxygen -Sliver strip-Hard, thin-Clear-Odourless-Gas -Bright spark of white light Chemical- Light and heat are given off

. 1. Zinc. Hydrochloric acid -Powder-Light weight-Grey-Colourless-Odourless-Liquid -Bubbles of heat-Mechanical mixture-The zinc and acid separates Chemical- Bubbles of gas are formed

. 1.Lead Nitrate.Potassium Iodide -Colouless-Liquid-Unusual smell-Yellow-Strong Smell-Liquid -A new colour appeared -Difficult to reverse-Mixed into one new substance Chemical-A new colour appeared -Difficult to reverse -Heat was given off

4. 1.Vinegar (acetic acid). Baking Soda (sodium bicarbonate) -Bad Smell-Clear-Liquid-White -Powder-Odourless -Light weight - Bubbles of gas were formed - A lot of pressure, overflowed Chemical- Bubbles of gas were formed

5. 1. Copper Sulfate. Barium Nitrate -Green-Liquid-Translucent-Clear-Transparent-Liquid -A new colour appears - Several bubbles of gas formed Chemical-A new colour appears

6. 1. Vinegar.Bromothymol Blue Indicator -Translucent- Clear-Smells Bad-Blue-Liquid-Opaque - A new colour appears- Difficult to reverse- Once the blue contacted with the vinegar it changed to a orange colour Chemical-a new colour appeared-Difficult to reverse

7. 1. Copper Sulfate.Water -Blue + white small pieces-Light weight-Clear-Odourless-Liquid - Separated into different substances- Its easy to reverse Physical-Substances remained the same

Conclusion In Conclusion my hypothesis was correct because I predicted that 6 out of the 7 chemicals would be chemical change and not physical because of the way that the chemicals would react to the other substances. Also I predicted that the copper sulfate and the water would be physical change because of the two substances separated. They didn’t dissolve into one whole substance they stayed, as .The way I knew that the labs were chemical change because of the 5 clues a new colour appears, heat or light is given off, bubbles of gas are formed, the solid forms into a liquid, and it is difficult to reverse. There was more chemical change because more of the experiments reacted chemically and formed into one new whole substance instead of staying as two separate substances.

Discussion

1. What are the 5 clues that a chemical change has occurred?

a) A new colour appears

b) Heat and light are given off

c) Bubbles are formed by gas

d) The solid material forms into a liquid

e) Its difficult to reverse

. Which substances underwent a physical change?

The Substance that I think underwent a physical change was the Copper Sulfate and water.

. There are three ways a change can be physical what are they?

a) Shape b) Size c) State

4. Name one everyday use of each of the chemicals used in the lab?(Except Copper Sulfate and Barium Nitrate)



One everyday use of each of the chemicals used in the lab are

Magnesium- it is used for metals and to reduce greenhouse gases

Oxygen-It is used to help us breath and it helps make things grow

Zinc-It is used for plants, to make them grow, doesn’t turn leaves yellow

Hydrochloric Acid-used to assist protein digestion by activating the stomach

Lead Nitrate-It is an applicant that’s in the pigment industry and in Gold Mining

Potassium Iodide-it is used to reduce the risk of thyroid Cancer in a nuclear emergency is released

Vinegar-it is a food product, used for cooking, brakes things down

Baking Soda- it is used for cleaning and cooking

Bromothymol Blue Indicator-It is used in swimming pools to check the Ph levels

Water- it keeps us hydrated



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Smokers should just quit smoking!

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1Wall paint stripper, ant poison, toilet cleaner, lighter fluid, car exhaust gas, insecticide, NASA fuel, mothballs, insecticide/weed killer, PVC pipes added to 4000 other chemicals. Better known as Acetone, Arsenic, Ammonia, Butane, Carbon Monoxide, DDT, Methanol, Naphthalene, Nicotine and finally vinyl chloride. Also known as the components of the modern day cigarette

The constituents of a cigarette are far from appealing, yet 11.1 billion people have taken to smoking worldwide. The cigarette trade is a billion pound commerce, enticing 15.45% of high school students each year. Youths remain the prime consumers of the cigarette industry. As cigarettes become more commercial the effects are emphasised more, especially to students. Yet 1.5 million deaths, worldwide, each year, occur due to smoking. This figure is significantly high, considering the fact that over 70% of smokers are trying to quit. Sales in cigarette purchase are far from declining but accelerating each year. The question remains, ‘What prevents individuals from discarding an unwanted habit such as smoking?’



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Figure 1 how teens obtain cigarettes taken from http//www.lungusa.org/data/smoke/smk.pdf

Male 4.7% 14.% 5.4%

Female 4.% 1.% .%

Race/Ethnicity

White, non-Hispanic 8.6% 10.4% 18.8%

Male 8.% 18.8% 8.%

Female .1% 1.5% 8.6%

Black, non-Hispanic 1.7% 1.% 1.7%

Male 1.8% .5% 16.0%

Female 17.7% 0.% 11.6%

Figure 1percentage of high school student’s smoking- ethnicity included

There are 4 chemicals in a cigarette known to cause cancer, one being nicotine, recognised as being the most frequently used addictive drug. Nicotine, one of more than 14,000 chemicals found in the smoke from tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and pipes, is the 4primary component in tobacco that acts on the brain. There have been substantial increases in the sales and consumption of smokeless tobacco products recently. It is this addiction instigated by nicotine that inhibits smokers from quitting. Cigarette smoking is the most prevalent form of nicotine addiction.

Most smokers use cigarettes because of their addiction to nicotine. For non-smokers the attitude taken to smokers is commonly cynical. The fact remains that the 6addiction to nicotine is usually overlooked and their efforts to eliminate this addiction are usually underestimated. Most smokers identify tobacco and nicotine as harmful and articulate an aspiration to reduce or stop using it. Nearly 5 million smokers make a serious attempt to quit smoking each year, less than 7% who try and quit on their own achieve more than a year of abstinence. Most relapse within a few days of their attempt.

In terms of judging smokers, it is important to consider the addictive properties of nicotine as well as its high level of availability. Other factors include the practically non-existent legal and social consequences of tobacco use, the sophisticated marketing and advertising methods used by tobacco companies. These factors, collectively with the addictive characteristics of nicotine, prompt first use and inevitably addiction. The judgemental public eye fails to finger point social and media influences, advertising and promotion, peer pressure and celebrity manipulation as the instigators for many smokers.



Figure 6domestic cigarette advertising and promotional expenditures in the US from the years 16-14 taken from http//a.rn11.com/yh/pu/yhgeointpu.htm

Furthermore, Research has recently concluded that nicotine acts on the brain producing various behavioural effects. The prime effect is the addictive side, though of equal importance is the property that nicotine regulates feelings of pleasure. Cigarette smoking produces a rapid distribution of nicotine to the brain, drug levels peak within 10 seconds of inhaling. The chemical involved in the desire to consume drugs is Dopamine of which nicotine increases the levels. The effects of nicotine dissipate in a few minutes, causing smokers to dose frequently and maintain the gratifying effects preventing withdrawal.

What the general public remain ignorant of is the concept that cigarettes are efficient in use. Through inhaling a smoker rapidly provides the brain with nicotine in every puff. A ‘typical’ smoker takes 10 puffs over a 5-minute period. Therefore an individual smoking 1 or packets a day (0 cigarettes) on a daily basis acquires 00 ‘hits’ of nicotine to the brain every day. Hence increasing the addictive disposition of nicotine through the pleasurable effects. What the smoker remains ignorant of is the reality that on average, every cigarette that is smoked to satisfy this desire for pleasure shortens their life span by 11 minutes.

If this information is insufficient in acting as an insight as to why smokers continue to conform to an act that is self-destructive then advances in medical research provide extended evidence. Recent research identifies other chemicals as being psychoactive constituents of tobacco. Scientists have acknowledged a decrease in an enzyme named Monoamineoxidase (MAO), responsible for breaking down Dopamine. A chemical other than nicotine adding to the pleasurable incentive that smoking generates must cause this adverse effect.

7Nicotine remains as one of the most widely abused substances as identified by the 1 national household survey on Drug abuse. 1An estimated 57 million Americans were current smokers and a further 7.6 million used smokeless tobacco. Accumulating from this, in 18 each day in the United States more than 000 people below the age of 18 began daily smoking. According to the 8Centres for disease control and prevention,’ in 11 cigarette smoking for high school students in the U.S increased from 7.5% to 6.4% in 17. Statistics such as these remain constant sources representative of the dangers of nicotine addiction.

Terminating nicotine consumption stems withdrawal symptoms, which quickly prompt the use of tobacco products. Symptoms include irritability, craving, cognitive and attention deficits, insomnia, and increased appetite. The most important symptom, yet the most overlooked is craving, an urge for nicotine described as ‘the most major obstacle.’ While the withdrawal syndrome is related to the pharmacological effects of nicotine, many behavioural factors also can affect the severity of withdrawal symptoms. For some people, the feel, smell, and sight of a cigarette and the habit of obtaining, handling, lighting, and smoking the cigarette are all associated with the pleasurable effects of smoking, and can make withdrawal or craving worse. While nicotine gum and patches may alleviate the pharmacological aspects of withdrawal, cravings often persist

1Chronic exposure to nicotine be it directly or indirectly (passive smoking) results is some sort of addiction. Nicotine addiction cannot be taken lightly and with figures such as 1.1 billion smokers at present, aid in combating this addiction is imperative. 10% of smokers trying to quit without help fail most within a week, hence aid and support needs to be advertised more within homes, school and society.

Smokers are considered by some, an inconvenience to society, polluting the air, the cause to passive smoking. To other non-smokers smoking is less of a problem, ‘if they want to damage their health, that’s their problem.’ This kind of attitude, if taken by everyone would add to nicotine abuse spiralling out of control. Smokers especially youth smokers have to be made more aware of the severity of smoking. To the individuals that remain indifferent passive smoking needs to be highlighted in order for society to recognise and deal with those smokers who are in urgent need of help.



Figure 6comparative causes of annual deaths in the Unites states taken from http//a.rn11.com/yh/pu/yhgeointpu.htm

Nicotine addiction stems a variety of diseases, repeated exposure to nicotine results in the development of tolerance. This condition is one of which higher doses of the same drug are need to produce the same effect. Nicotine is metabolised rapidly, the body expels it from the body in a matter of hours. Therefore tolerance is lost over night, as time progresses acute tolerance develops, cigarettes become less effective and more are consumed.



Figure 4 deaths attributed to cigarette smoking

The medical consequences of nicotine exposure result from effects of both the nicotine itself and how it is taken. The most detrimental effect of nicotine addiction is the result of tobacco use, 1accounting for one third of all cancers. 1Amongst this is lung cancer, one of the leading killers of both men and women. Cigarette smoking has been linked to 0% of all lung cancer cases. 10The world health organisation, label smoking as the greatest cause of death and disability, known as the cause for 5 diseases. The world health organisation also makes clear that the effect of smoking and ‘its impact on world health is not fully assessed.’

Lung problems caused by smoking are a primary health risk, 1killing more than 0,000 people in the UK alone each year. 1UK studies highlight that men who smoke increase their chance of dying from lung cancer by more than times. Female smokers also disadvantage themselves by increasing their risk of lung cancer by nearly 1 times. Lung cancer is difficult to treat and its survival rates are poor. Other forms of Lung cancer such as Emphysema (difficulty in breathing) have irreversible effects. A relationship between cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease was first reported in the 140s. Smoking increases the risk of heart disease including, stroke, heart attack vascular disease and Aneurysm. It is estimated that nearly one fifth of deaths from heart disease are attributed to smoking.

1Studies conducted in the Uk reveal smokers in their 0s and 40s are five times more likely to have a heart attack than non-smokers. 4Tobacco contributes to the hardening of the arteries through Atheromas ‘fatty deposits’ leading to ‘Atherosclerosis. The tissue can then become Ischaemic ‘without oxygen’ or block off the blood supply in the coronary arteries supplying the heart, causing myocardial infarction ‘heart attack’ or blood vessels supplying the brain, causing strokes. 1Smokers that continue to smoke for a lifetime have a 50% chance that their death will be smoking-related (half of these deaths in middle age).

Smoking affects society as whole and not just smokers in general. 10,000 people worldwide burn or suffocate due to fires caused by cigarettes. 1Second hand smoking is an escalating dilemma estimated to cause ,000 lung cancer deaths per year for non-smokers and over 40,000 deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. Exposure to smoking in the home and increases the severity of asthma for children, as well as contributing to new forms of asthma.

If passive smoking and the complications that arise due to smoking is not enough of an incentive for the average individual to aid others in combating nicotine addiction future impacts should act as motivation. Nicotine addiction in women doesn’t cease at pregnancy and those that continue to smoke if without help put themselves and their foetus at serious risk.

For pregnant women, carbon monoxide (a lethal gas) and high doses of nicotine attained when they inhale tobacco smoke interfere with oxygen supply to the foetus. Nicotine crosses the placenta, and the concentration in the foetus can be 15% higher than maternal levels. Carbon monoxide also inhibits the release of oxygen into foetal tissues. Woman who smokes during pregnancy are at a higher risk than non-smokers for premature delivery, and reduced birth weight of infant.

In the United States 10% of pregnant women smoke throughout their pregnancies. Smoking in pregnancy greatly increases the chance of a miscarriage, it can also promote sudden infant death syndrome, cot death and high rates of infant respiratory illness (bronchitis, colds, pneumonia). Smoking reduces the fertility of both women and men, with escalating figures in terms of smokers especially from an early rate this could soon affect birth rate.

Future problems include the social effects with a decline in birth rate; the amount of working individuals needed to support older generations would also decline. 10By 00 the Worldwide Health Organisation expects the worldwide death toll due to nicotine to reach 10 million, causing 17.7% of all deaths in developed countries. With an estimated 1.1 billion smokers in the world only 800,000 of them are in developing countries.

Diseases such as lung cancer and harm to infants through smoking can be reduced, through pharmacological treatment for nicotine. Individuals need to be motivated to quit, and no attempt to help someone quit is worthless. If a 1-year-old man quit smoking on average his life expectancy would increase by 5.1 years.

As well as behavioural and pharmological treatments there are nicotine replacement therapies. These include nasal inhalers, nicotine gum and transdermal patches and work to relieve withdrawal symptoms, producing less severe physiological alterations. These therapies are beneficial as they have little abuse potential since they do not produce such pleasurable effects. Combine therapies such as increased messages in the media to stop smoking and selling over the counter medication has increased successful quitting by 0% each year.

Behavioural treatments are also valuable such as formal smoking-cessation programmes, telephone and written formats and public awareness. These types of therapies take ethical issues and moral standards into consideration. Segregation within society and categorising people stem prejudices and discrimination. The question remains is it ethical or moral to segregate smokers from society? Isn’t this just forcing them to deal with their addiction and problems on their own? Smokers have an addiction and strive to satisfy this, yet public places such as high street shops and public transport don’t acknowledge this. From a smokers perspective they are pushed further and further from society through smokers rooms at work and separate seating arrangements in restaurants. In doing this society is dissolving all support for smokers trying to quit, however Smoking is damaging to the health of individuals. Disease can arise due to passive smoking therefore laws and ethics should work to protect the general public from health problems.



Bibliography

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Bartecchi, C.E.; MacKenzie, T.D.; and Schrier, R.W. Human costs of tobacco use. New Engl J Med 007-80, 14.

Benowitz, N.L. Pharmacology of nicotine addiction and therapeutics. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 657-61, 16.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Surveillance Summaries, June , 000. MMWR 4, SS-5, 000.

Giovino, G.A.; Henningfield, J.E.; Tomar, S.L.; Escobedo, L.G.; and Slade, J. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence. Epidemiol Rev 17(1)48-65, 15.

Henningfield, J.E. Nicotine medications for smoking cessation. New Engl J Med 116-10, 15.

Hughes, J.R. The future of smoking cessation therapy in the United States. Addiction 1177-180, 16.

Lynch, B.S., and Bonnie, R.J., eds. Growing Up Tobacco Free. Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths. Committee on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths. Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine, 15.

Martin, W.R.; Van Loon, G.R.; Iwamoto, E.T.; and Davis, L., eds. Tobacco Smoking and Nicotine. New York Plenum Publishing, 187.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Monitoring the Future, National Results on Adolescent Drug Use, Overview of Key Findings 000. NIH Pub. No. 01-4, 001.

Pomerleau, O.F.; Collins, A.C.; Shiffman, S.; and Pomerleau, C.S. Why some people smoke and others do not new perspectives. J Consult Clin Psychol 617-71, 1.

Rice, D.P. Economic Costs of Substance Abuse, 15. Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians, 111()11-15, 1.

The Smoking Cessation Clinical Practice Guideline Panel and Staff. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research smoking cessation clinical practice guidelines. JAMA 75170-180, 16.

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Nicotine Effects - Mind Over Matter Series-www.nida.nih.gov/MOM/NIC/MOMNIC1.html

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Why Teachers are Trying to Eliminate Sites Like This One

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Teachers today have to face a number of problems. One of them involves essays that are printed on the Internet. Every year, I try to teach students to write well so that they can be successful in the future. Every year, they go to sites like yours. So, Im going to give you back some of my thoughts. It probably wont make sense, but I wonder if you care about that. By the way, regarding the essay that someone stole from you, that student will receive a zero on the assignment, thanks to sites like yours. I hope that you think that you are doing something beneficial for our society. Think a long time about that one. Think a long time. What follows are some additional thoughts.

Trying to hold on to the delights of teaching can sometimes be a challenge. It’s like trying to hold on to your sense of humor in a war zone. When I decided to major in education in college, I never thought that my job would involve any serious battles. No one told me ahead of time that students come to school just for the social life. The education professors in college just told us one thing�one lie�that “everyone has an innate desire to learn.” I’ve gotten to the place in my life where I can forgive them for the lie. After all, they need their jobs, too. If no one majored in education anymore, they wouldn’t be able to eat. Poor souls! Just think of them…homeless…starving in the streets. Hmmm…not a bad picture. Okay, so maybe I haven’t forgiven them completely.

If living with the lie isn’t enough trauma to deal with, then there’s the reaction of the public to my career choice. Every time I tell people what I do for a living, they cringe and say, “Oh, I would never want to do that! I can’t stand the attitudes of high school students. You teach what? English? Oh, that must be terrible! I always hated English!” Okay, so no one understands why I’ve done this to myself. Sometimes, I can’t, either. There only seems to be one solution.

For years now, I’ve told my students that I am going to write a book about them and my experiences as a teacher. Perhaps if the book is good enough, I’ll be able to afford to take a lovely vacation to some exotic island with white, sandy beaches surrounded by that beautiful blue water that I only get to experience through television commercials. If I get to that exotic island, perhaps God will be gracious and allow me to stay there�forever. Or, perhaps, if it isn’t good enough, at least I’ll understand, for myself, why I am a teacher. This may not be very organized, but I will write about things as they pop into my head. First, I will discuss the cheaters.

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All parents live with the delusion that their children are sweet, innocent, little darlings. You can’t blame the parents. It’s just that the little darlings are experts in delusion themselves. They delude their parents into believing that they are innocent. They use the big-sad-eye approach, followed by the pouting lip. They trot off to church on Sunday, dutifully obeying their parents, sitting reverently in the pew, and feigning holiness better than any actor who ever had to portray the Pope in a movie. The only sign of any breech in this peaceful scene comes when I enter the church. Then they fidget a little and appear to be slightly uncomfortable. Probably because…THEY KNOW that……I KNOW that…..THEY ARE LITTLE FAKERS!!! They’re so afraid, in those moments, that I’ll say something to their parents. They’re afraid I’ll remove the veil of their deception and tell their parents that their church behavior only lasts on Sunday. On Monday, when I get them, its obvious that they missed the sermon on Sunday. Perhaps...just perhaps...they were sleeping....dreaming about using an Internet site like this one to get an English assignment done without really having to think at all. Thank you findfreeessays.com. Thank you.

Oh, and if this doesnt really make sense. I dont care. I dont have that much respect for your uneducated opinion.







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Friday, June 1, 2012

bmw 7-series

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Timeline and Background

Bavarian Aircraft Works was founded in 116. The company was created through a merger of an aircraft maker and a manufacturer of aircraft engine, which initially produced airplane motors. Bavarian Aircraft Works merged with Rapp Motor Works in 117, which then became Bavarian Motor Works (BMW). In 1, BMW started producing small engines for motorcycles. One year later, BMW launched its first motorcycle. In 18, BMW presented its first automobile. Not long after that, in the 10s, BMW established its reputation as a maker of high-quality motor vehicles. Although BMW was successful, it encountered many financial hurdles. BMW became profitable in 15, which was the same year that the Quandt family invested $1 million. In 166, BMW’s automobile market segment consisted of a combination of high-performance engineering and comfort of the European luxury sedan. In 175, BMW introduced the successful 7-Series. Over 15 years later, in 11, BMW began working on the engineering prototypes for the redesigned 7-Seris that was to be launched for the 14 model year.

The traditional strategy of following Mercedes’ lead in pricing and styling, was slightly changed to stress and become the leader in technology, while maintaining its classy, sporty style. BMW invested significantly in Research and Development. Not many other car manufacturers could compete with BMW’s high-level of performance, handling, and safety. BMW was known for the finest in performance and reliability.

BMW’s headquarters were in Munich, Germany. Over 70 percent of BMW’s suppliers were also located in Germany. Many operations, such as assembly plants, regional distribution centers, dealers, and other divisions, were located in different countries, including, but not limited to Africa, Austria, Japan, and the United States. Also, over 70 percent of BMW’s sales came from Europe. A large portion of BMW’s remaining sales came from the United States and Japan.

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BMW was one of the leaders in the luxury automobile market and it ranked number 16 of the largest automobile manufacturers; however, it held a mere 1.5% of the world market. Luxury automobile manufacturers’ competitive product characteristics included acceleration, handling, comfort, and perceived quality and image. Cost was not nearly as an important attribute as the previously mentioned more-prestigious characteristics.

In the late 180s, new competitors began to challenge the European luxury automobile manufacturers. In particular, it appeared that the Japanese were going to be strong competitors.



Issue

BMW is launching a new model of its 7-Series luxury sedan. It is exactly two years, eight months, and five days until the scheduled production date and management is faced with a critical decision regarding the building of full-scale working models during the developmental stages that will greatly influence the future of the company. Over the next several months, engineering prototypes have to be designed, built, and tested in order for final design revisions to be made in time for the launch. Traditionally, BMW hand-built and assembled its prototype automobiles it in own shop. Highly skilled craftsmen and specialized outside vendors fabricated the parts and used both less-expensive materials and less-complex pre-production tools to save costs. The issue with this, however, was that construction of prototypes hardly resembled the techniques used in the final high-volume production. And because of this, BMW found thousands upon thousands of minor problems in the final transitional stages from final prototype to high volume production. Discovering the problems and modifying both the vehicles and the tools to produce them took up much time. Furthermore, complications increased with the fact that potential production problems were not discovered and solved during the test pilot runs, resulting in the increase incidence of customer complaints of BMW’s new models.

Carl-Peter Forster, director of Prototype and Pilot Manufacturing at BMW is proposing a new process for building the cockpits of the 7-Series prototype vehicles. With the new strategy, the cockpit prototypes will be made by outside suppliers that used more automated methods, more specialized tooling, and less skilled workers. Also, one supplier will be selected to construct major subassemblies of the cockpit and ship them to the BMW assembly line where BMW’s pilot assembly plant workers will perform the necessary assembly operations rather than prototype specialists. The new approach brings higher tooling costs, longer lead times, and the potential for encountering additional risks, but management believes that it will drastically reduce the problems associated with bringing a new model into production and have a significant influence on product quality. Switching to this new process is a major change for BMW; the individually, hand-crafted process is how the company built itself and earned its highly acclaimed reputation. The design to change the process will significantly affect BMW’s image and competition.

Analysis

Causes and consequences of BMW’s quality problems with newly launched products

Current prototypes are geared more towards engineers than customers, as highly skilled workers made the prototypes at the design and engineer center. The current production process was a poor reflection of estimated production rate and product quality. Another consequence of utilizing highly skilled workers affected testing in a negative manner and was possibly a reason for the increased number of defects; thus, customer complaints were at level that was higher than desirable. Also, customers started expecting more due to competitors’ high quality luxury automobiles.

Potential ways to improve launch quality

BMW should conduct marketing studies to determine what customers expect and want. BMW should then incorporate such expectations and requests in its design phase.

The new process, utilizing the concept of concurrent engineering, will be more efficient and more competitive because BMW will be able to launch new products more quickly. The new process will also enable BMW to detect the problems in both the design and production processes and resolve the issues faster. If BMW involves their suppliers from the beginning, they will create strong relationships with them, which will also assist in ensuring that all divisions work together smoothly. In addition, all of these improvements will improve BMW’s delivery time.

Recommendations concerning the 7-Series prototypes

BMW should use materials and tools more similar to the materials used in the prior production models. Also, BMW should consult with the suppliers that are involved in the design and prototype processes. This not only helps BMW make the prototype to be more like the final production, it also assists suppliers because they are able to learn more about what is being requested before they are required to produce the product in volume. In addition, the prototypes should be built by BMW’s assembly line, rather than the prototype specialists.

Recommendations regarding future development projects

In order for BMW’s future projects to run more smoothly, it should focus on its core competencies of concept design and assembly; then, outsourcing its parts to suppliers. Therefore, suppliers can be involved at an earlier stage of development of a new project. Significant testing should be a major part of the design phase, as this will reduce many problems encountered in the production phase. For BMW to introduce more models more frequently, it should decrease the lead-time from the concept phase of the car to the release of the final product in the market. One way for BMW to increase product variety will be for it to offer set packages as well as individual custom options. This will increase customer satisfaction because they will be able to customize their car the way they want it.

Recommended changes in developing new models

When developing the prototype for a new model, BMW should use the actual parts instead of substitute parts; for example, instead of using fiberglass BMW should use sheet metal. This will help prevent defects earlier and further complications later in the process. Although, the initial investment will be costly, significant cost savings will be achieved and the investment will pay off in the long run.

Concerning the ramp up process, BMW should use the sudden changeover approach to eliminate confusion and achieve full volume production capacity in less time. However, by following this approach BMW will lose on opportunity costs by not fully utilizing its fixed capital for the first 4.5 months. To remain competitive, this will help BMW release new models more quickly.

In addition to designing new models, BMW should simplify the production process by combining multiple separate parts into fewer parts. This would help reduce the time it takes to assemble the automobile.

Regarding early tooling, it is expected BMW’s suppliers will use early specialized tooling to manufacture BMW’s parts. BMW should reduce the amount of prototype batches produced from five to three. BMW will also greatly reduce prototyping costs and lead-time. In the first prototype batch, BMW should use its current process of hand designing. In the second prototype batch BMW should use the pre-production process and in the third prototype batch it should use the specialized tools. This will still allow BMW’s skilled craftsmen to use their creativity and keep some flexibility in the design. If successful, BMW should use the early tooling concept for the parts of the entire automobile.

Expected improvements

As a result of the above recommendations, it is expected that construction of prototypes will resemble techniques used in final production, which will dramatically reduce problems associated with bringing new models into production. BMW will maintain its high quality image and possibly increase its market share. BMW’s relationship with suppliers will be better due to working in conjunction with them in designing its cars. Customer complaints will decrease since customer suggestions will be considered. The process will be more customer-friendly rather than engineer based.

Attributes subject to the potential risk of deterioration

Due to increased automation, employee skill base may deteriorate. This may constrain flexibility and limit the amount of last minute changes needed and wanted by BMW and its customers. Another risk BMW may encounter is that it will become too dependent on its suppliers.

Proposed Plan of Action

Recommendations to BMW’s strategy to compete against Japanese luxury automobile manufacturers

After careful thought and strategic planning, BMW should take the opportunity to make the new production process easier and more efficient, while maintaining its effectiveness. Chairman von Kuenheim should implement the new prototyping approach to compete against new Japanese entrants into the luxury car market. Although the initial investment in changing to a more automated process will cost BMW DM 50 million now, it will potentially save them DM 100 million per product launch in the future. Changing the production process will enable BMW to adapt with the company’s needs, including early detection of problems with the design process, improvement of the evaluation of both production rate and product quality, and the ability to streamline operations. This change will also better accommodate the customer’s demands of a stylish automobile and high expectations of reliability and performance.



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