Tuesday, July 31, 2012

cross cultural encounters

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Creating a Universal Culture

There is a universal culture which unites all human beings in shared emotions, feelings, and instincts. However, worldwide, there exist diverse ethnic, racial, regional, and national sub-cultures which share characteristics with other sub-cultures, but are defined by their own distinct behaviors. As people develop an understanding of sub-cultures to which they don’t belong, the more positive and constructive they become. This should be the main objective of humanity- to develop a greater awareness, tolerance, and appreciation of all the sub-cultures worldwide. “Of Plymouth Plantation” by William Bradford, “La Relacion” by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, and “My Sojourn in the Lands of My Ancestors” by Maya Angelou provide brief explanations on how one can have a positive cross-cultural encounter. A positive cross-cultural encounter is created when people focus on creating a greater universal culture which reflects the commonalities and similarities shared between different sub-cultures, yet still retains the unique customs of those sub-cultures.

Upon arriving, the settlers in “Plymouth Plantation” presumed they were on hostile ground, so they constructed a fort for protection. “The next night they landed and made them a barricado as usually they did every night... partly to shelter them from the cold and partly to defend them from any sudden assaults of the savages. (pg 84) The settlers segregated themselves from the Indians and ignored any similarities that they may have shared. It seemed that the settlers and the Indians would never live in harmony; but because of a few amicable individuals, such as Squanto, the barrier between the two sub-cultures dissolved and they were able to co-exist. The settlers and Indians recognized and accepted their similarities and differences. Neither group tried to force its culture on the other; instead both groups learned that they could live in harmony and united under a universal culture that focused on the commonality shared by both sub-cultures.

“La Relacion” was similar to “Plymouth Plantation” in that the men from the ship confronted Indians upon their arrival. The Indians willingly provided food and shelter for the men in the middle of their most intense afflictions as a means to help alleviate their suffering. “They deprived themselves of food to give to us” (pg 76). Cabeza’s men later functioned as medicine men for the Indians. “The Islanders wanted to make physicians of us… they insisted we should do this” (pg 76). Rather than focusing on the discord that divided the two sub-cultures, both groups looked for ways in which they could compliment one another. They saw that they were all humans with the same basic needs for food, shelter, and wellness. They used these needs to form a unified community where both sub-cultures were maintained while a universal culture bonded the sub-cultures.

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In “My Sojourn” Angelou truly tried to gain a heightened awareness of the African culture. She dressed in the traditional Ghana cloth and she learned the language so that she could enrich her cultural experience. In the town of Dunkwa, where Angelou stayed, she was eagerly accepted. A member of the town told Angelou, “We don’t want our Bambara relative to think herself a stranger anymore” (pg 115). “My Sojourn” deals with the regional sub-culture in Dunkwa. The people of Dunkwa grasped hold of the African roots that they shared with Angelou and accepted her as an African. This united them under a broader, more universal culture which allowed a positive cultural experience.

When considering the crossing of cultures, there are primarily two theories. One theory is the melting pot theory. This is when a new sub-culture is forged from combining several sub-cultures. The other theory is the salad bowl theory. This is when sub-cultures exist separately and maintain their practices, but don’t assimilate with each other. Both of these theories are inadequate methods for crossing sub-cultures because separation and selection of sub-cultures, will never allow a positive, harmonious encounter. Hopefully, the solution to crossing sub-cultures lies in the concept of an ethnic stew, where all the ingredients or sub-cultures retain their distinct characteristics, yet co-exist with each other in a universal culture or “broth”. For anyone desiring a positive cross-cultural encounter, all they have to do is focus on developing the ethnic stew theory. As they discover the similarities they share with other sub-cultures they create a “broth” or a universal culture which allows them to gain a stronger appreciation and awareness of other sub-cultures; this in turn unites them to other sub-cultures and provides for a positive cross�cultural encounter.









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Monday, July 30, 2012

The Economics of The Slave Trade

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The past is what makes the present coherent, said Afro-American writer James Baldwin, and the past will remain horrible for exactly as long as we refuse to assess it honestly.

The African slave trade played an important role in the stabilization of Europes economy, its transition to capitalism, the development of the nation state, and the establishment of their imperial empires. The opening of the Atlantic led to the development of Europes commercial empire and industrial revolution. The demand for African slave labor arose from the development of plantation agriculture, the long-term rise in prices and consumption of sugar, and the demand for miners. Not only did Africans represent skilled laborers, but they were also experts in tropical agriculture. Consequently, they were well-suited for the plantation agriculture that was being used in the new world. Africans then became the final solution to the acute labor problem in the New World.

HISTORY

From the begining, relations between Europe and Africa were economic in nature. Portuguese merchants traded with Africans from trading posts they set up along the coast. They exchanged items like brass and copper bracelets for such products as pepper, cloth, beads and slaves. At the time this was all part of an existing internal African trade market. Domestic slavery was common in Africa and there was trading of humans well before European slave buyers arrived. It started with the capture of black slaves that were bought by Arabs and exported across the Saharan desert to the Mediterranean and Near East.

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In 14, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World or America’s. This find proved disastrous not only for the Native Americans but also for Africans. It marked the beginning of a triangular trade between Africa, Europe and the New World. European slave ships, mainly British and French, began taking people from Africa to the New World.

Rough estimates of the total human loss to Africa over the four centuries of the transatlantic slave trade range from 0 million to 00 million. At first Europeans captured Africans during raids on costal communities. This soon gave way to buying slaves from African rulers and traders. The majority of slaves taken out of Africa were sold by African rulers, traders and a military aristocracy who all grew wealthy from the slave business. This was in the early sixteenth century when the kingdom of Africa was at war with its neighbors. During these wars chiefs would take as many captives as he could. These captives would then be traded for twelve or fifteen brass bracelets each, or for copper bracelets, which they prized more. Olaudah Equiano, an ex-slave, described in his memoirs published in 178 how African rulers carried out raids to capture slaves. When a trader wants slaves, he applies to a chief for them, and tempts him with European goods. It is not extraordinary, if on this occasion he yields to the temptation with as little firmness, and accepts the price of his fellow creatures liberty with as little reluctance, as the enlightened merchant. Accordingly, he falls upon his neighbors, and a desperate battle ensues...if he prevails, and takes prisoners, he gratifies his avarice by selling them. Equiano was born in 1745 in an area under the kingdom of Benin. At the age of ten he was kidnapped by slave hunters who also took his sister. He was more fortunate than most other slaves. After serving in America, the West Indies and England he was able to save and buy his freedom in 1756 at the age of twenty-one.

STATISTICS

The ships that carried enslaved Africans went from ports in Europe to Africa and then on to the America’s. Liverpool and London became major slave trading ports after the middle of the seventeenth century. After loading enslaved Africans at the Atlantic coast of Africa, ships from these ports sailed directly to the Americas, where the African slaves who had survived the rough Atlantic crossing were sold. Most European slave ships ranged in size from 50 to 00 tons and carried between 00-450 enslaved Africans. On average, one in six slaves died during the Middle Passage but in some cases many more died from disease and shipboard rebellion, sometimes more than one in two slaves (Martin). After the surviving enslaved Africans had been sold in the Americas, ships returned to Europe, usually to the same port they had left from. This completed the ‘triangular’ voyage that the Transatlantic Slave Trade is now usually identified with. These voyages normally took between 1 and 18 months, much of the time was spent either in Africa collecting and enslaving Africans or in the Americas selling and recovering payment for them. The goods that slave ships brought back to Europe were sugar, tobacco, precious metals from the America’s, and ivory, dyewoods, and gum from Africa.

The numbers of Africans who died during the trans-Atlantic crossings was horrendous. The slave traders in their desire to carry as many Africans as possible on each voyage packed as many prisoners as they could into the holds of the slave ships often with fatal consequences. In 165 the ship Constant Ruth lost 0 of the 07 slaves it carried. The Fortune lost 1 out of 0 in 1678. The Hannibal, sailing from Whydah to Barbados in 16 lost 0 out of 700. The Brownlow in 174 lost 6 out of 18 (Martin). Between 1680 and 1688, out of every 100 Africans taken aboard ships in the service of the Royal African Company died in transit. The high point was in 168 when losses reached percent of the total number of Africans taken aboard. The percentage loss of slaves in transit by slavers shipping out of the French port of Nantes between 1715 and 1741 was approximately percent. Over a period of 46 years statistics show that Nantes slave traders, who bought 4,000 slaves on the coast of Africa, delivered only 0,800 for sale at the end of their journeys (Martin).



Slaving voyages proved immensely profitable to those who invested in them. After raiding African villages and taking his captives to Spanish America for sale, John Hawkins, one well known slave trader, returned to England in the 1560s with substantial quantities of Spanish treasure. Some of the later voyages of English slave traders proved equally rewarding and provided returns of 50-100 per cent or more, on investments. Such profits, in turn, are thought to have financed the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Africa’s loss of people through the slave trade therefore certainly enriched British society. Cities such as Bristol, Liverpool, London and Nantes undoubtedly became wealthier as a result of their involvement in the slave trade and trades in slave-produced goods.

Whether the slave trade was generally as profitable as Hawkins and some other traders discovered, is still a subject for debate. The methods that Hawkins used to obtain slaves in Africa, eventually gave way to trading in slaves, and Africans began driving hard bargains with European and American buyers. Enslaved Africans also resisted their enslavement and many died before they reached their destination. Many other factors added to the costs and uncertainties of slave trading voyages, which meant that profits varied greatly and unpredictably.

It can be misleading to see the high profits of some voyages as being typical of the slave trade as a whole. Nevertheless, it is clear that many Europeans profited from the slave trade, in some cases, very considerably so. While for Africa and Africans it was primarily a source of social disorder, economic exploitation and human misery.

Several well known Authors have tried to explain the economics of slavery. Karl Marx gave this explanation on the economics of managing the labor of slaves

When his place can be supplied from foreign preserves, the duration of his life becomes a matter of less moment than its productiveness while it lasts. It is accordingly a maxim of slave management, in slave importing countries that the most effective economy is that which takes out of the human chattel in the shortest space of time the utmost amount of exertion it is capable of putting forth. It is in tropical culture, where annual profits often equal the whole capital of plantations, that Negro life is most recklessly sacrificed. It is the agriculture of the West Indies ... that has engulfed millions of the African race.

John Newton, the slave trader turned abolitionist, wrote that he had been informed by a consignee to whom he delivered slaves in Antigua in 1751

That calculations had been made, with all possible exactness, to determine which was ...the more saving method of managing slaves whether, to appoint them moderate work, plenty of provision, and such treatment as might enable them to protract their lives to old age? Or, By rigorously straining their strength to the utmost, with little relaxation, hard fare, and hard usage, to wear them out before they became useless and unable to do service, and then, to buy new ones, to fill up their places?

He further said, that these skilful calculations had determined in favor of the latter mode, as much the cheaper, and that he could mention several estates in the island of Antigua, on which it was seldom known that a slave had lived above nine years.

The slave trade was one of the most important business enterprises of the 17th century. The nation states of Europe stabilized themselves and developed their economy mainly at the expense of African people. During the latter half of the century; Colbert, a Frenchman, stated that, no commerce in the world produces as many advantages as that of the slave trade(Williams, From Columbus to Castro, 144). The wealth of the New World in the form of sugar, tobacco, metals, gold, cotton, etc. was extracted by African labor and then exported from the colonies through the capitalistic enterprise of Western Europe. Western Europe drew profits from the trade in slaves, commodities produced, service of shipping, and the development of new industries based on processing raw materials. According to Eric Williams, no other commerce required so large a capital as the slave trade which kept the wheels of metropolitan industry turning. Cities such as Liverpool, Amsterdam, and Bristol were built upon slave labor. The capital and raw materials derived from the African slave trade contributed significantly to the Commercial and Industrial revolution. According to James Rawley, the black slavery was essential to the carrying on of commerce, which in turn was fundamental to the making of the modern world(Rawley, 4). In other words, the modern world was built upon the blood, sweat, and tears of our African ancestors.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bales, Kevin Disposable People New slavery in the global economy. University of California Press. 1.

Martin, S.I.. Breaking the Silence. http//www.antislavery.org/breakingthesilence/about.shtml. Onctober ,00.

Olaudah, Equiano Narrative of the Life of Olaudiah Equiano. Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc. 000.

Rawley, James A.. London, Metropolis of the Slave Trade 1st ed, Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc. October 181.

Williams, Eric. From Columbus to Castro The History of the Caribbean 14-16. Knopf Publishing Group. March 18.

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Friday, July 27, 2012

Beowulf

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Beowulf is a story about a king named Hrothgar who has a stunning empire and foyer called Herot that was built for his soldiers. A man-eating monster named Grendel is petrifying Hrothgar’s kingdom. Every night he arrives to kill King Hrothgar’s men. The monster comes to murder anyone its claws can grasp.

Finally, words broaden about the monsters ferocious visits. Beowulf, the Geat, comes to Hrothgar’s kingdom he and his men and offers to kill Grendel. Hrothgar remembered he helped Beowulf’s father Ecgtheow, so he welcomes him. During his visit, a man named Unferth tries to get into an argument with Beowulf by accusing him of losing a swimming contest with a man named Brecca. Beowulf tells the story of his heroic victory in the contest, and the group celebrates his bravery.

Beowulf then fights Grendel and tears his arm out of his socket and kills him. (Grendel dies later on after he escapes from Beowulf but Beowulf is the reason why he died.) Grendels, mother then comes wanting vengeance for her son and kills Hrothgars best friend Aeschere. When Beowulf is called to the hall, he finds Hrothgar in grief for his friend. Beowulf then goes to the burning lake and jumps in to find Grendels mother. He kills her and cuts off her head and finds Grendel and cuts off his head.

The name of the story is called “Beowulf”. In the beginning Scyld Scefing was an orphan and he got lucky and became ruler. Hrothgar was his great grandson and he was a noble king. Hrothgar built a mead hall named Herot for his soldiers because they had won a lot of wars. Then one night this monster had came named Grendel. Grendel was a descendent from Cain and he was evil. He came on night will the soldiers were drunk and sleep and killed about thirty of Hrothgars men. For about 1 winters he came and was killing the soldiers. Then Beowulf the Geat came and told Hrothgar that he would help him since he helped his daddy awhile back. So Beowulf and his men went to eat then a guy named Unferth came and was trying to hate on Beowulf saying that he was lying about the swimming contest between he and Brecca. So Beowulf told his story and Unferth was jealous that a man came to his town to do a job he couldn’t do. Finally, Beowulf meets Grendel because they were all in Herot pretending to be asleep, then Grendel came and kicked in the doors and snatched up one dude then he grabbed Beowulf and Beowulf got his arm and held it tight. Grendel then got scared and all he wanted to do was leave, but he couldn’t because the man had him in his grasp. Beowulf rips of his arm and Grendel crawls home and dies. Well his mother found him and when the soldiers were in Herot she came and killed Hrothgars best friend and takes back Grendels arm. Then Beowulf had to jump in to the burning lake where she lived and fight the mother. He ends up cutting her and Grendels head off and bringing it back on the sword called Hrunting. Then Beowulf has to fight this dragon because someone stole an item from the treasure he was guarding.

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Monday, July 23, 2012

EA

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Watch This Video

The people running around him are actually ENEMIES! (believe it or not)

This video makes me wonder how a company can get away with releasing cr@p like this...

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fleebs

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Joined 0 Sep 00

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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 05 PM

Too late everyone already hates EA.

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XBX ReDruM

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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 05 PM

yeah i know, but this will make you hate them even more (if that is possible)

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DarkCovers



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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 05 PM

I remember that video. It is so funny, I thought the people were his teammates at first.

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HighlandKnox8



Joined 15 Nov 00

Total Posts 51



Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 054 PM

My computer cant take the movie.(either that or im to bored waiting for it to load) What on the movie?







XBX ReDruM

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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 057 PM

the movie is some gameplay from MOH Rising Sun... in it, you see some people running around the main character (most people assumed that they were teammates), and they are not shooting him, just looking at him... then the main character starts shooting them (you realize that they are actually enemies), and they start running around like crazy. they do not shoot him at all. a few of them just start running at him... its funny

if the link doesnt work just keep trying, sometimes it works, sometimes it doesnt

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kidrieck



Joined 6 Nov 00

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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 058 PM

id assume like in the last MOH u prolly have to dress like a japanese soldier and so the enemies are more than likely not smart enough to see hes an american.... just like real life.... lmao... j/k

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Silent Bob Adventure, excitement... a Jedi craves not these things. Brodie hll hath no fury like a woman scorned for Sega. (or X-BOX) Jay Come to me, son of Jor-El! Kneel before Zod! Snootchie-bootchies!







DarkCovers



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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 05 PM

It is an in-game video of Medal of Honor. You see the player running around in like the jungle and all these people are around him. No one is shooting, so it looks like it is teammates. Then the player starts shooting them down one by one and the AI never even takes a shot.

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uran8er



Joined May 00

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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 0400 PM

EA is one of the best developers. I mean your not going to die if u cant play Madden on live.







XBOX ROX



Joined 10 Dec 00

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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 040 PM

that is funny. why would EA put that on their site. makes the look like retards







XBX ReDruM

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Joined 17 Jul 00

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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 0404 PM

right now were not talking about EA games being on Live (thats a WHOLE different issue)

we are talking about how some of their games are the worst ever created

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Web London

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Joined 1 Nov 00

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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 0406 PM

good god the A.I is horrible!! they just look at him and dont reac.t one enemy trips and dies! wtf is that!

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Chemikill



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Re This Video Will Make You Hate EA!!!

Posted 11-16-00 040 PM



yes I di. I hate ea



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Sunday, July 22, 2012

uncle tom's cabin and the escape, a comparison

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Women set the standards of emotional strength, physical endurance and bear the weight of not just their world on their shoulders but that of their children, husbands, and parents, adopted and immediate family. The women from The Escape and Uncle Tom’s Cabin have much in common. Melinda and Eliza are both beautiful, both wanted sexually by white men, and both have given their hearts to their mates Glen and George. They both share the burden of slavery and the constant noose around their necks that could be yanked at any time.

Melinda is a woman that Mrs. Gaines envies, Draglines is sexually interested in, and fears for her life and that of her husband Glen. She is emotionally ill equipped to warrant off Dr. Gaines. It’s a damned if you damned if you don’t situation for her. If she does her master’s wishes she is unfaithful to her husband. If she remains faithful to her husband she has no guarantee Dr. Gaines will not become discouraged and sell her or even kill her. Melinda borrows her courage from Glen, for he believes if they make the trial it proves that they deserve success.

Eliza, first and foremost is a mother. George fathers her son, Harry. Within the first few moments of reading you hear George is leaving for Canada to try to gain freedom from his master. Eliza soon finds out that her master, who has been said to be kind, has sold off her son as well as Uncle Tom. She makes her attempt at freedom to save her son’s life from the auction block. Courage is what it takes to do the unbelievable. Eliza has the courage to risk not only her life but also her son’s life for a chance at freedom.

Black women, especially during the slavery era are put into stereotypes.

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The stereotypes of today differ from those of over a century ago. I believe Melinda, in that time, would be considered a Christian slave. She seems to be Christian in her beliefs as far as faithfulness towards Glen and the story seems to be centered on Christian beliefs. Melinda is put into a category where she is subservient to her master as well as her husband. I believe Melinda is passive and draws her strength from her husband. Eliza, on the other hand, could be considered passive until the life of her child takes priority. She takes matters into her own hands and escapes with her son to the north. She is faced with the barrier of ice and water. The only will, is the will to survive. Both these women feel the pressures of life squeezing out of them and do what they must to survive.

Women are a true testament to where life begins and ends. The lengths a woman will go for her child far outweigh the lengths they will go for themselves. The women of these stories show strength, endurance and love. It’s a shame that the real lives of women like them are lost to our generation.



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Saturday, July 21, 2012

Courtesy

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Johann Wolfgan Vin Goethe was a poet, dramatist, and scientist, born in Frankfurt, Germany. He wrote lyric poetry in his time. He was inspired by his relationships with a series of women. His love for classical Italy, and his passion for Christiane Vulpius, whom he married in 1806, was expressed in the poem Römische Elegien (175) and more. One of his quotes that dealt with courtesy is expressed through his human relationships.

The quote says that “there is a courtesy of the heart; it is allied to love. From it springs the purest courtesy in the outward behavior.”

The quote means that courtesy and love are on the same level and when you receive them they are good for your heart. It also means that the love and courtesy in your heart is symbolic to what you are worth. There is no risk in lending courtesy. It is like love, a priceless happiness, it satisfies and is very effective. It is friendly and welcomes all who use it and also those who receive it. Courtesy is like a two way street leading to kindness and compassion.

This quote applies to Johann Wolfgan Vin Goethe life because he is famous and had many friends.

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The fact that his quote survived up to today for people to read shows that courtesy goes a long way. It shows that no matter how small an act of courtesy is it will never be wasted. He was popular and made time in his life to practice courtesy that is why his quotes are still relevant today. He viewed courtesy as the foundation of starting strong loving families, and a good community, which would in turn, gives birth to a healthy world. Courtesy does not only go as far as referring to people by titles such as Mr., Miss, or Mrs. It goes way further than that. Courtesy can be demonstrated through polite behavior, good manners, or polite remarks. Courtesy is listening and asking intelligent questions. It means to not interrupt and do not get impatient and angry. Courtesy can also be interpreted as not instigating and asking questions on a sensitive issues. Courtesy is when you are quiet in the hallway. Or in my case writing larger so people can see it. Courtesy is using such words as “thank you” when the lunch lady hands you your food. When someone gets up and gives you there seat on the bus is also an act of courtesy. With something to think about, make it a great day or not. The choice is yours.



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Friday, July 20, 2012

"The Short, Happy Life of Francis Macomber"

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The Short, Happy Life of Francis Macomber by Ernest Hemingway is a short story overflowing with indirect references to Ernest Hemingway and his life. Through this story, Hemingways views regarding marriage, women, and even men are made apparent. The story takes place in Africa during a safari Francis Macomber and his wife, Margaret are on. Robert Wilson is their guide, and the person that unwittingly changes the life of Francis Macomber. Franciss marriage is not one of love, but one of convenience. Margaret has cheated on him before, and proceeds to sleep with Wilson. Up to that point, Francis is playing the role of the meek and mild husband, but all that changes when he channels his anger and shoots a buffalo. This is the turning point for him and the first time he feels confident in his abilities on this safari. The story begins with a man who ran from his first lion, screaming, and ends with a man who is brave and ready to go for the kill. Margaret, sensing this newfound bravery, accidently shoots and kills him. The personalities of each of the characters parallel different aspects of Hemingways life and illustrate his views.

Ernest Hemingway was married four times during his life. By the time this story was written, he was on wife number two. It has been written that he was bitter towards his mother, who was rather overbearing. This attitude toward his mother carried over into all his relationships with women. He does not view women as wholesome, loving beings, but rather as the most predatory and the most attractive and they [women] break their men so that they have softened or gone to pieces nervously as they have hardened(16). Margarets character encompasses all the qualities a man desires, and also all the qualities that Hemingway loathes about women. She is selfish, condescending, and unloving toward her husband. Throughout this story, she never redeems herself or becomes a character with whom we can empathize.

Francis Macomber is an intelligent, handsome man who excels at many things, but is out of his element on this safari. His character represents a man who has been broken by a woman. Francis is the type of man that Ernest Hemingway always made a point not to be like. Hemingway was always involved in the most violent, dangerous, or challenging situations. These activities ranged from fighting in wars to going on his own safaris in Africa. He excelled at all physical activities, but was unable to ever attain the one thing he most wanted, happiness. Francis experiences an epiphany after shooting the buffalo. He feels rejuvenated by at last taking charge of a threatening situation, instead of turning his back on it. By God, that was a chase, he said. Ive never felt any such feeling(14). This is the point at which Margaret begins to feel very threatened, and knows that Francis will no longer be intimidated by the idea of not being married to her.

Robert Wilson appears to be the character most similar to Hemingway. He is a mans man, as the saying goes and resembles the image Hemingway developed for himself. He is not married, excels at his occupation, and does for himself what is best suited to his interests. Wilson is not very concerned with what others feel or think. He knows that he has to keep his clients happy and that the women did not feel they were getting their moneys worth unless they had shared that cot with the white hunter(144). Wilson did not respect these women because of their behavior, but he did enjoy their company. As a matter of fact, he despised them when he was away from them...(144).

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Ernest Hemingway was concerned with authenticity in a story, as well as ensuring that the reader felt as though he was actually experiencing the plot in the story. This is most effectively done by writing from ones own experiences. Hemingway did this very concisely through his characters, settings, and plots. We feel as though we are in the story and are able to identify with each character. Francis and Margaret Macomber, and Robert Wilson all reflect the views and characteristics of Hemingway. Each possesses some loathsome qualities that become their damning by the end of the story.

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Wednesday, July 18, 2012

crucible

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In the play The Crucible, by Arthur Miller, John Proctor is introduced as a main character early in the plot. He comes out as a rebellious man in a sense, and right away we learn of his affair with Abigail. By the end of the play Proctor is changing his ground and becoming a more responsible individual and not lowering himself to Abigail’s standards once again. In the beginning of the book when his affair is revealed, he could strike the reader as a weak and failing individual. One would think this because of the vow that he made to his spouse that she is the “only” or the “chosen” one. Proctor has not lived this statement truthfully and that proves that he is, in a sense, a failing individual. Though he may be weak, he is also a rational man. He is one of the few characters in the book who does not believe in witches. He knows that all the accusations of witchcraft are false. This shows that he is strong because everybody else in the town is going crazy because if these “witches”. John once says, “God will not let you wash your hands of this” (Act Two; pg7), referring to if they were to accuse, and jail the convicted “witches.” He keeps calm and goes against public opinion, which is a brave thing to do. By the end of the play John Proctor has recovered the moral integrity that he had lost earlier in the book. He ends up confronting Abigail and as a result of that renews his relationship with Elizabeth. It takes a lot for him to confess to his wife that he had had an affair but Proctor, being a strong individual, realizes his mistake and confesses. Then, in the court scene he further instills his integrity by not naming any names. He stands up for what he believes in, which is that there are no witches, and doesn’t even fall back on his beliefs after being threatened to be put it prison. He is willing to be locked away to stand up for what he believes. In the end John Proctor comes out as being a powerful individual, unlike his initial weak prospective. He is faced with a challenge; he vaselates then rises to the occasion. This is a prime example of character development on Proctors behalf.

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Sunday, July 15, 2012

A Rose for Emily Symbolisms

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There are many symbolisms in William Faulkners A Rose for Emily. An unidentified narrator begins the story of Miss Emilys life with her funeral. Although the name and identity of the narrator is not mentioned, it is assumed that he or she is a part of the townsfolk. The story shifts through the past and present times of Emily Grierson’s life. She was from an earlier era and refused to let go of the past.

The narrator shifts the story back to Emily’s past. She held on to an era gone by when her family once held a high status over the townsfolk. In one instance, the City Authorities attempted to revoke her tax-exempt status. After they mailed numerous letters and personally visited Miss Emily, their attempt had failed. The reason for their failure was due to the high authority Miss Emily possessed over the townsfolk. Alive, Miss Emily has been a tradition, a duty, and a care; sort of heredity obligation upon the town, dating from that day in 184 when Colonel Sartoris, the mayor-he who fathered the edict that no Negro woman should appear on the streets without an apron-remitted her taxes, the dispensation dating from the death of her father into perpetuity. Emily’s authority over the townsfolk is made clearly evident when she entered the store and requested arsenic from the druggist. The man at the store ignored all laws to fulfill Emily’s odd request.

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Another example of Emily’s refusal to move on to a newer generation was her failure to notice the changes that took place around her house. As time passed on new buildings surrounded Emily’s house. Only Miss Emily’s house was left, lifting its stubborn coquettish decay above the cotton wagons and the gasoline pumps. The house was described as striking during its younger years. It was a big, squarish frame house that had once been white, decorated with cupolas and spires and scrolled balconies in the heavily lightsome style of the seventies, set on what had once been one of our most selective streets. However, as the years continued the house began to fall apart. It became an eyesore to the townsfolk. The deterioration of the Grierson house can be compared to the physical decline of Miss Emily. The young Emily was seen as slender, pretty, and well groomed. In her later years, she is described as a small fat woman wearing all black. The house and Emily began to decay as generations passed.

Her refusal to give up her father’s dead body showed her fear of the passage of time. There were different reminders of her past placed throughout the Grierson home including a portrait of her father who died a couple of years earlier. Another inference of Miss Emily’s refusal to move on is the description of the gold watch she wore around her neck. It hung on her by a thin chain that descended to her waist and disappeared into her belt. Although the gold watch is not seen, the ticking was audible. They could hear the invisible watch ticking at the end of the gold chain. This serves as a symbol of Emily’s failure to observe the passing of time. Generation after generation passed her by but she neglected to notice any changes.

The narrator provides all of these symbolisms through out the story, which lead to the discovery of Emily’s disturbing secret. For two years Emily kept the dead body of her former lover in the house with her. It is obvious Miss Emily slept in the same bed each night with the dead body. Then we noticed that the second pillow was the indentation of a head. One of us lifted something from it, and leaning forward, that faint and invisible dust dry and acrid in the nostrils, we saw a long strand of iron-gray hair. This was the hair from Emily’s head. The opening of the room revealed a stagnant world of decay, which in many ways mirrored the decaying way of life Emily had experienced. The reason Emily held on to her former lover’s dead body was due to her refusal to move on.

The gold watch, picture of Emily’s father, and deterioration of the Grierson house were only some of the symbolisms used to describe Emily through out A Rose for Emily. The details of Miss Emily are collected in a series of incidents that paint a picture of the events surrounding her lover’s death. In the end the message was clear. Emily Grierson was a product of an earlier era. She refused to let go of past generations and could not move on to the future.



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Friday, July 13, 2012

Examine how Harper Lee explores the theme of courage in her novel ‘To Kill A Mockingbird’.

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During the time in which Harper lee set ‘To Kill A Mockingbird’ the great depression had been and devastated the New York stock market.

Harper Lee used a variety of language to create atmosphere and reveals the characters in this way.

This essay is about courage and how it is explored. Courage is shown in characters and events that happen throughout the novel.

Atticus is one of the significant members of Maycomb County that shows a lot of courage; Harper lee shows his courage in many cases. One example of this is when Bob Ewell spits at Atticus, but being the gentleman he is he walks away from him ignoring his abusive actions. Mr Ewell asked Atticus if he was ‘too proud to fight’, using his common sense and great knowledge he replied that he was just ‘too old’. This quote shows the intelligent of Atticus and the fact that he will not stoop down to the level of Bob Ewell.

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Atticus is a lawyer in his hometown and is chosen to defend Tom Robinson a black member of the community, who was accused of raping a white girl in the name of Mayella Ewell (Bob Ewells daughter).

Scout is inquisitive as to whether her father is doing the right thing, defending a person who the whole community are against. ‘Do you defend niggers, Atticus?’ I said that evening. ‘Of course I do. Don’t say nigger Scout, that’s common’. Atticus explained to Scout that if he did not defend Tom he couldn’t hold his head high in Maycomb.

Before Tom is admitted to court he spends the night in Maycomb jail. Atticus goes and sits outside to protect Tom as the lynch mob express that they think he should be killed. Atticus knows that there is a risk he may be killed.

Jem, Scout and Dill sensed there would be trouble so they went to observe what was happening. Scout ran to Atticus and began to talk to Mr Cunningham about his entailment, what Scout didn’t realise is that she was distracting the lynch mob gang from the purpose of the congregation.

A couple in the story that have a huge amount of courage between them are Tom and Helen Robinson. They both go through an ordeal of abuse but have the fortitude to continue with their life. Helen was shouted at and verbally abused by Bob Ewell when she walked past his living quarters. Tom is put through a lot during the court case, he has to stand against a white girl knowing that no matter how genuine and convincing the evidence the jury would take the side of Mayella, purely for the fact that he is a different race.

Both Jem and Scout (Jean-Louise) were brought up by Atticus not to judge people by appearance or upbringing but by their personality. They have grown up with only one parent because their mother died when Scout was only little, this itself is a very courageous act.

Jem has taken care of Scout and tried to keep her out of trouble. One evident incident was when Jem protected her on the way home from the Halloween pageant. They were walking home together when Jem heard footsteps, he thought that someone was following them. Scout said to Jem that she thought it was Cecil Jacobs, a boy the same age as her who played a practical joke on them on the way to the pageant, but after a while they realised Cecil wouldn’t go that far. A few moments later the children were attacked, Scout was thrown about but Jem freed her.

‘We were nearly to the end of the road when I felt Jem’s hand leave me, felt him jerk backwards to the ground’.

A mysterious character and very courageous soul is Arthur Radley (otherwise known as Boo). Boo is a quiet person who likes to keep himself to himself, but because of his childhood he is said to be violent and dangerous. Rumours spread around Maycomb said that Boo ate squirrels and because of that this his hands were bloodstained. Later in the novel we find that Boo was the one that rescued Jem when he was knocked unconscious, this was courageous of him because he never stepped out of the house, but risked everything to save Jem.

The most significant case of courage is that of Mrs Dubose. Mrs Dubose had a morphine addiction and was determined to die free from it even though she suffered a great deal of pain. When Atticus talked to Jem and Scout about her death he speaks some extremely wise words.

‘I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand’.

In the novel there are many cases of courage illustrated, apart from those mentioned. Courage can be defined in many ways; here are the two main types Courage that you use to fight against evil and prejudice and using acts of bravery to prevent the evil. Then there is real courage, when you continue what you are doing even if you are fighting a losing battle.



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Do the Sherlock Holmes stories appear to follow a set formula?

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Do the Sherlock Holmes stories appear to follow a set formula?

The Sherlock Holmes stories were written by a man named Arthur Conan Doyle. They were written during Queen Victoria’s reign around the 1880’s. They were detective fiction stories. Detective fiction is basically a story based upon a mysterious crime that has been committed, and then solved by a detective � who is seen as a shining light of reason and logic in a dark, supernaturally gothic case. He detective is a genius who can spot clues and other sorts of things that other human beings would never notice. The detective solves the crime, which seems to other people to be supernatural, by using science, reason and logic to prove that the crime was committed by that of a criminal mastermind and not by supernatural elements.

Detective fiction originated from Edgar Allen Poe’s story, Murder In The Rue Morgue (Death Street). This was written in 1848 and was a new type of fiction that had never been seen before. It was set in the dark, gloomy, almost gothic, back-streets of Paris and showed the detective in a heroic light, solving the impossible through logic and reason. The detective in Poe’s story was called Dupin. The narrator was Dupin’s sidekick. This story set the conventions for Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes stories, except that Doyle updated Poe’s conventions for the middle class audience in the 1880’s.

Doyle’s detective fiction followed certain rules and conventions. In most of the Sherlock Holmes stories there are certain conventions that appear in them (in some they do not, which I will discuss later). Certainly in his earlier stories there were always elements of the exotic (far-away countries such as India, unheard of plants, foreign animals) the gothic (gloomy backstreets) and the villain was almost always ugly and/or deformed.

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In all of the Sherlock Holmes stories, Holmes’ sidekick, Watson, narrates. I will discuss this further later on. Also the victim was usually a woman. This is because in those times women were seen as the weaker sex and having a male as a victim who had been killed was extremely rare. Another rule Doyle followed was that he set the stories in real places, such as Surrey (The Speckled Band) or London (The Man With The Twisted Lip). The crime was almost always a murder and they always seemed to be caused by supernatural elements. Holmes uses deduction, linking clues and researching the victims past, science, reason and logic to solve the mystery.



His stories follow these conventions because they were popular with the middle class Victorians. They enjoyed reading about the exotic because during that time foreign countries were being discovered and there was a fascination with anything exotic in those days and they enjoyed reading about places, people and creatures from hard to reach, far away places. The gothic element was used to make the real places Doyle used seem scary and foreboding, so that the audience feels scared about their surroundings for a short time, but then when Holmes solves the case it gives them a sense of relief and they don’t feel scared anymore because Sherlock Holmes is always there to save the day.

The conventions and rules in these stories tend to reflect the Victorian values. The motive for murder is usually money. Money and power are usually linked and power was very important to Victorians. During the time when the Sherlock Holmes stories were being published England was in control of an empire which spanned two fifths of the world. Doyle’s stories were also popular because people probably enjoyed trying to work out the denouement (solution) along with Holmes. If they got the denouement right it would have made them feel good about themselves and if they failed to solve it, then it would probably only increase their awe in Holmes.



Holmes is seen as special to the readers and also to the narrator of the stories, his sidekick Watson. When he takes on a case he really gets into it and he researches it and finds out information. He is very dedicated to his work, as this quote shows below;

“So he sat as I dropped off to sleep and so he sat when a sudden ejaculation caused me to

wake up, and I found the summer sun shining into the apartment. The pipe was still betw-

een his lips, the smoke still curled upward, and the room was full of a dense tobacco haze

but nothing remained of the heap of shag which I had seen upon the previous night.”

This quote from The Man With The Twisted Lip shows that Sherlock Holmes didn’t sleep that whole night; he just sat there trying to work out the denouement and smoking a pipe. Also, when he visits the scene of the crime he also changes. He becomes drawn into his work and is like a hound on a scent. He crawls along floors with a magnifying glass and picks up on minute clues that other people would not have seen…

“His brows were drawn into two hard, black lines while his eyes shone out from beneath them

in a steely glitter…his nostrils seemed to dilate with a purely animal lust for the chase, and his

mind was so absolutely concentrated on the matter before him that a question or remark fell

unheeded upon his ears, or at the most provoked only a quick, impatient snarl in reply.”

Holmes is exceedingly different from the Victorian police force. When they cannot solve the crime, a relative of the victim or someone who wants the case solved, contacts Sherlock Holmes. Holmes is a well known and respected character. People hear about him by word of mouth and he is highly recommended by people to another person. When Holmes takes on a case he stops at nothing to solve it. He researches the clues and he eliminates all the possibilities until he is left with the denouement. Sherlock Holmes is seen as better than the police and, whereas the police rush in and don’t get anything solved and they are depicted as being bungling idiots, Holmes goes in and solves the case almost effortlessly. This results in him looking even more brilliant and genius…

“I am sure, Mr. Holmes, that we are very much indebted to you for having cleared the matter up.

I wish I knew how you reach your results.”

Holmes is also seen as heroic as well as brilliant. As it is usually a female victim, he is seen as rushing to the aid of a woman in trouble. He seems heroic because he always saves the day by using logic and reason to solve the case and eliminates the supernatural (devils, ghosts and the suchlike) and he always catches the criminal and brings them to justice.

There is also the fact that Holmes never accepts payment for solving the case and he sees his work almost as an art-form. Because he does not accept money for solving cases makes him appear almost like a Victorian version of Robin Hood; as he helps the needy and doesn’t reap any benefits for himself, except the satisfaction of successfully solving a case.

Sherlock Holmes in appearance slightly resembles a bird of prey. He has a large, hooked nose, like an eagle, and he has piercing eyes, that seem to pick up on every single little detail, whereas most people would merely dismiss them as meaningless or trivial, he sees them as clues and uses them to come up with the denouement. He can disguise himself so that he cannot be discovered in criminal places. It is almost as if he connects to the mind of a criminal;

“It took all my self-control to prevent me from breaking out into a cry of astonishment. He

had turned his back so that none could see him but I. His form had filled out, his wrinkles

were gone, the dull eyes had regained their fire, and there, sitting by the fire and grinning

at my surprise, was none other that Sherlock Holmes?”

Although Holmes is seen as absolutely fantastic, not many people knew that he was really a cocaine addict. This might be the reason why he was so brilliant at solving the cases � because he was partly a criminal himself. This could be seen as flawed genius. This is like some of the modern detectives seen in modern fiction and on television programs. Inspector Morse is an alcoholic, like Holmes with cocaine. Modern detectives are a lot like Holmes; extremely dedicated to their work and stopping at nothing to solve a case. Modern detectives also solve the cases using science and reason. They are a lot like Holmes, although maybe not as eccentric.

Holmes is depicted like this in all three of the texts we are looking at (The Curse of the Devils Foot, The Speckled Band and The Man with the Twisted Lip) and he acts the same in all of them, adding up clues, eliminating all supernatural possibilities and basically really into his work so that in the ends he catches the criminal and comes up with a correct denouement.

The narrator of the Sherlock Holmes stories is his sidekick Dr. Watson. This comes from Poe’s Rue Morgue story, the narrator of that was Dupin’s sidekick. Watson has to follow some conventions of his own � he has to list all of the events in chronological order and he also has to give his own opinions on situations. Because of this he can make Holmes appear brilliant without making him seem bigheaded � therefore inducing awe of Holmes in the reader. Watson makes the stories appear real as he gives his own opinions on situations and sometimes when Holmes gives the denouement he does not understand, sometimes like the reader, and has to ask Holmes to repeat what he has said and sometimes need the clues to be explained for him

“But I am all in the dark!” (Watson)

“Of course you are. You’ll know all about it presently.” (Holmes)

The reader trusts Watson because he is a doctor and you usually trust doctor because they are well respected. They Victorian readers also trusted him because he was a middle class gentleman and they were generally trusted and respected in the Victorian times. We also trust him because he is like us and often does not understand what Holmes is saying, and also because he aids us. Because he aids us and helps us he gains our trust.

Watson makes Holmes appear really brilliant because he hero-worships him and because it is not Holmes himself saying how brilliant he is Holmes doesn’t appear big headed he just appears even more fantastic.

“It was difficult to refuse any of Sherlock Holmes requests, for they were always so exceedingly

definite and put forward with such a quiet air of mastery.”

“I could not wish for anything better than to be associated with my friend in one of those singular

adventures which were the normal condition of his existence.”

In all three of the texts we are looking at Watson is always the narrator of the story and he always hero-worships Holmes, putting in comments about how brilliant and how much of a genius he is. Modern sidekicks are not very similar to Watson as they usually understand what is going on and are not as slow as Watson. They also do not idolise their ‘superiors’ as much as Watson idolises Holmes and also they help towards solving the case as well, not as much as the main detective but a lot more than Watson helps Holmes with the case.

Another one of Doyle’s conventions is the element of the gothic. The Gothic element is where Doyle makes the real settings (such as London or Surrey) seem scary and dark; almost medieval (the Medieval times is where the term ‘gothic’ originated). He does this so that the settings seem darker and scarier, therefore making the storyline more dramatic and thus keeping the reader hooked on the story-line. Villains and the crime are described in a gothic light, such as the death of Doctor Grimesby Roylott in The Adventure of the Speckled Band where his body is described as;



“His eyes were fixed in a dreadful, rigid stare at the corner of the ceiling.”

This is seen as gothic because it is mysterious, and he is staring at the corner as if something supernatural and terrifying has been in his room and killed him.

Another example of the gothic in a Holmes story is in The Man with the Twisted Lip when Holmes is talking about the possible death of Neville St. Claire…

“There is a trap door at the back of that building, near the corner of Paul’s Wharf, which

could tell some strange tales of what has passed through it upon moonless nights.”

By this Holmes means human bodies. He makes a real setting (Paul’s Wharf) seem terrifying and gothic. It appears like a dark, dangerous place that you would not want to visit.

In all of the Holmes stories we have looked at in lessons there have been elements of the gothic or the medieval and supernatural, although these are especially prominent in The Case of the Devils Foot…in which you are led to believe some kind of supernatural force has been killing people as the people are found dead with horrible expression;

“Dead in her chair, with a twisted grimace of fear on her face.”

Doyle added the gothic into his stories because the language used is over the top and it adds atmosphere to the story. The gothic is always proved to be a red herring as it leads you to believe it is a supernatural force committing the crime, such as the devil or a witch or something, when really it is not anything supernatural at all, just a master of crime.

The gothic is a convention in Doyle’s stories, there is always some gothic in a Holmes story, even if very small. After Doyle, however, in modern detective fiction and T.V shows, the gothic is not used as much. It is used sometimes, in scenes like beside a dark canal, but not used in excess as it was with Doyle.

Another convention used a lot in Doyle’s stories is the element of the exotic. This may have come from either the Victorians near-obsession with all things from foreign, far-away places. It may also have come from the time Doyle spent doing medical training in India. Countries such as India and Africa feature heavily in Holmes stories, especially his earlier ones.

Saying this, however, in Doyle’s later work he tended to drop a few of his conventions � one of these being the element of exoticism. As you can see when reading The Man with the Twisted Lip you realise Doyle tried to drop conventions. This may be because he felt it was time for a change after sticking to his conventions. In The Man with the Twisted Lip there was no exotic and the whole story was a red herring as the villain actually turned put to be the victim in disguise.

Doyle’s stories also show the middle-class values at the time Holmes was written. These values and opinions are as follows

Money; The Victorians liked money a lot � it was like their driving force in life. Usually the motive for murder or crime in Holmes stories is money…often inheritance. This shows the extremes Victorians were prepared to go to for money and power.

Women; Victorians viewed women as the weaker sex. In Holmes stories women are often portrayed as “hunted looking and frightened” almost like a weak animal, such as a rabbit. Holmes is depicted as coming to the rescue of these women. Women were almost always the victims, the character who was murdered. The men hardly ever died.

Lower class; The lower class are always viewed as the main suspects of the stories � such as the gypsies in The Adventure of the Speckled Band and the homeless beggar in The Man with the Twisted Lip. This was because Victorians did not think the lower, working class were any good and they looked down on them.

The Deformed; The deformed, ugly or mental people were often depicted as the villains. The villain in Holmes stories is usually ugly or deformed such as the man with one leg in The Sign of Four (we did not read this story for our coursework but I am using it as an example). I will discuss the villains further later on.

Supernatural; During the Victorian period everyone became very interested in the supernatural. Doyle was one of them, which may be the reason there is an element of the supernatural in his stories � even if they are proved to be red herrings at the end.

Scandal; Middle class Victorians went out of their way to avoid scandal, and if a scandal happened, they covered it up as so no-one would ever find out. They liked people who were well respected and if your family had a scandal or were shown up then no-one would respect you anymore and sometimes it could ruin them. They hated scandal.

Now I am going to consider the villains in Doyle’s Holmes stories and the rules regarding them. In all three texts we have looked at all the villains are deformed or ugly…with an exception being The Man with the Twisted Lip in which the villain is revealed to be the victim in disguise. In The Case of the Devils Foot the villain, Mortimer Tregennis, has a stoop and in The Adventure of the Speckled Band Dr. Grimesby Roylott is described as;



“A large face, seared with a thousand wrinkles, burned yellow with the sun, and marked

with every evil passion, was turned from one to the other of us, while his deep-set bile

shot eyes, and his high thin fleshless nose, gave him somewhat a resemblance to a

fierce old bird of prey.”

And in The Man with the Twisted Lip the would-be villain is described like this;

“A broad wheal from an old scar ran right across it from eye to chin, and by its contraction had

turned up one side of the upper lip, so that three teeth were exposed in a perpetual snarl. A shock

of very bright red hair grew low over his eyes and forehead.”

This shows the convention for Doyle’s villains � unusually ugly and deformed. These reflect the Victorian stereotypes; that ugly and deformed people were evil and lower than normal people.

However, this convention turned out to prove a problem for Doyle. People always used to realise straight away that the ugly and deformed individual was the villain and it spoiled the story for them. Doyle tries to change this convention in The Man with the Twisted Lip by making the victim be in disguise as an ugly beggar.

Holmes is uncannily similar to some of his villains…especially Dr. Grimesby Roylott…as they both have incredible strength, even though they have different builds…

“I am not quite so bulky, but if he had remained I might have shown him that my grip was not

much more feeble than his own.” As he spoke he picked up the steel poker and, with a sudden

effort, straightened it out again.”

He also has the same resemblance to Roylott; as they both resemble an old bird of prey. Holmes also is partly a villain himself � as he is a cocaine addict, and this could be seen as Holmes having a connection to the criminal world.

Modern villains are not like the villains in Doyle’s stories. The villains today are perfectly normal looking as it would be very predictable if the villain was exceedingly ugly.

Holmes solves his cases using deduction. He has no patience for the supernatural and does not believe in things such as superstition and devils. He goes to the library to research the background of key characters and suspects. Holmes solving the mystery through science, logic, reason and deduction is a convention as he always does it � he cannot solve the mystery through luck because then he wouldn’t seem anywhere near as brilliant as he does otherwise.

Holmes solving the mystery is comforting to the middle class audience as it makes them feel safe and that everything had been sorted out. It comforted them to think that there was someone like Sherlock Holmes around to keep away danger and scandal.

Considering all of this information I have come to the conclusion that Doyle’s earlier Holmes stories definitely followed a set formula but then as the stories continued and became more and more repetitive he tried to change some of his conventions � even experimenting with Sherlock Holmes death at one point � although that didn’t sit too well with his audience and he was forced to bring him back.

Definitely in his early work we see reoccurring images of the exotic…such as foreign animals, poisons and little aboriginal people (The Sign of Four) and the gothic, such as dark London back-alleys and moonless nights, and then the villains being usually ugly and deformed. You see real setting being used and we always see Watson narrating. In his later work we saw the exotic convention being dropped and also the ugly villain convention being played around with, as in The Man with the Twisted Lip.

These relate to modern detective fiction as they sometimes use similar conventions � such as elements of the gothic and making the case seem supernatural, although the exotic is not as overly used as now we have means of reaching the places middle class Victorians could only dream about. The villains are no longer ugly and deformed but look perfectly normal.

I can now come to the conclusion that even though the Sherlock Holmes stories were a detective breakthrough, bringing detective fiction into the mainstream in the early 1880’s, Doyle used things such as secret passages, undiscovered poisons, identical twins and suchlike so much that eventually they became untouchable for other detective fiction writing as then the storyline would be instantly predictable. Even so, he still changed detective fiction and Holmes could arguably be the best fiction detective and he is a thouroughly rememberable character.



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Death of a salesman exploring the effects of act 1 scene 1 page 7-14 on the outcome of the drama

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Death of a salesman exploring the effects of act 1 scene 1 page 7-14 on the outcome of the drama. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Death of a salesman exploring the effects of act 1 scene 1 page 7-14 on the outcome of the drama paper right on time.

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In act one scene 1 page 7-14 Willy Loman has just returned from a business trip. Linda Loman is worried at the beginning of the scene because she thinks that Willy has crashed the car. She asks Willy what he has been doing all day as he is looking tired, worn-out and doesn’t look very well. Willy is blaming himself for the reason the car was going onto the shoulder on the road. Linda tries to stick up for him by telling him it was the steering wheel but he won’t believe her. Willy has a tantrum because Linda bought a different type of cheese, ‘Whipped cheese’, instead of ‘Swiss cheese’. Biff and Happy are in bed and they hear their parent’s voices so they’re sitting up in bed listening. As they listen to their parent’s conversation they think that Willy Loman, their dad, has smashed up the car again.

The scene is at the beginning of the book and the characters in this scene are Willy, Linda, Biff and Happy Loman come into the scene at the end. The scene is about Willy Loman coming back from a business trip and its set in Willy and Linda Loman’s bedroom.

At the first scene of the play the audience will be watching and take in what they can about the characters. So their first impressions of the characters. As Willy Loman is having a tantrum about cheese you will notice that Willy has a few more tantrums during the (film) play. This shows that, Willy can get annoyed over small things and if he doesn’t get what he wants he will get annoyed with you. Willy likes to bring things up from the past

“If old man Wagner was alive I’d a been in charge of New York now!”

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Willy changes the subject after Linda asks some questions as like he says he will do it but deep down he knows he can’t. So instead of Willy saying I can’t he wills ay he will but then change the subject

“Why don’t you tell those things to Howard dear?”

“I will, I definitely will. Is there any cheese?”

Willy doesn’t want to disappoint Linda so he says he will do it but she won’t know if he tells Howard, so Linda will be proud of Willy for saying he will tell Howard.

The expectations Willy has are too high to meet. He thinks Biff can do something but his faith in Happy isn’t as high as Biffs

“Sure. Certain men just don’t get started till later in life. Like Thomas Edison. I think. Or B.F Goodrich. One of them was deaf. I’ll put my money on Biff.”

To understand the play this scene is quite important as it tells you a lot about Willy’s character. Says about what he expects from his sons and says what he is capable of doing. As Biff and Happy say

“Jesus, maybe he smashed up the car again!”

It says he is capable of smashing cars and might be able injuring himself.

Linda Loman protects Willy Loman a lot, she doesn’t tell Biff and Happy that he is trying to commit suicide. Linda tells her sons that Willy blacks out when he crashes the car not that he does it on purpose. She lets him dream about the past a lot doesn’t bring him back to reality and she tries to bring him back to reality too late to prevent his successful suicide.



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crucifiction

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Sherwood Anderson begins the book Winesburg, Ohio with “The Book of Grotesque”. The short story introduces the idea that people take vague thoughts, or many vague thoughts and change them into truths they live by. The people who do this are called grotesques. Another story in the book ends with Doctor Parcival explaining to George Willard that he believes that everyone in the world is Christ and we are all crucified. People are crucified because of their truths and other’s misconceptions of them.

Each short story includes George Willard, a quiet reporter and throughout the book the characters lecture George. They, like Christ, have intense beliefs on how life should be lived these are their truths. People base their decisions on their beliefs or “truths” and because we all have different truths people’s actions may be misunderstood. Doctor Parcival must have had a reason to not go to see the girl on the street. This decision was based on his truths and he knows that no one will understand his reason because they have different truths. This is similar to Jesus who tried to instill the words of God, which were his truths on the people. People did not want to try to understand because they had their own truths that may have kept them from making effort to see his.

Jesus was crucified because he caused pandemonium in the town with his beliefs. Some religions say that he was crucified so that the sin of man can be forgiven and so that they can reach salvation. When Christ died on the cross he was laid to rest in a cave and a rock was used

to close it. One morning the rock had been moved away and Jesus was gone. Since Jesus had disappeared from the cave and he died for man, people began to believe he was the Son of God and adopt his truths. Thousands of years later people still adopt and believe in his truths.

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When we die however, people don’t adopt our truths or even try to understand them. There is nothing to make them believe they are true unlike Jesus. This is why Doctor Parcival is going to be “uselessly crucified” he has not finished his book and therefore he has not taught his truths. When he is “hung on a lamp post on Main Street” people will not adopt his truths.

Sherwood Anderson may have also been playing upon the word crucify. Webster’s Dictionary defines crucifixion not only as being put to death by being nailed to a cross but as being treated cruelly or being tormented. The characters in Winesburg, Ohio open up to George and try in instill upon him their truths because he is so quiet. They are unaware of his truths because he is so quiet. He listens to them and doesn’t argue against their thoughts. If someone is firm on their beliefs they may argue against other’s beliefs. People are willing to explain their truths to George because they hope that he will understand them and take them as his own. Doctor Parcival may be saying that everyone will be criticized for his or her truths. People will disagree with them and maybe even dislike them. Everyone will be treated cruelly because they hold truths different from everyone else’s. Just as Jesus and Doctor Parcival will die because of their actions based on their truths.

People try to instill their truths on others, but because they too have truths they are unwilling to understand them. Christ also tried to teach his truths to others and many were against him because of that. After he was crucified people began to adopt his truths. Our death or crucifixion however, is not as significant because it does not teach others our truths. To crucify may also mean to be treated cruelly. Doctor Parcival is saying that like Christ we live by our truths and because of that each one of us will be treated cruelly or “crucified”.



Please note that this sample paper on crucifiction is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on crucifiction, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on crucifiction will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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