Monday, October 22, 2012

Explore how Shakespeare makes us aware of the power of the witches in Act І. Look, in particular at: . The scenes where they appear . Macbeth’s reaction to them . Banquo’s respo

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The three witches in Macbeth are introduced right at the beginning of the play. This indicates to me that Shakespeare is trying to portray that they are a powerful force in the play from the start and that they play a major and influential role in the play. They tell Macbeth three prophecies. That Macbeth will be Thane of Cawdor, Thane of Glamis and King. These prophecies introduce Macbeth to ideas of greatness. The three witches add an element of supernatural and prophecy to the play, and they each have a familiar, such as Graymalkin and Paddock. They are described as having beards but looking vaguely human. I believe they are inhuman creatures, neither man or woman, but ‘instruments of darkness.’ These three “secret, black, and midnight hags”, hardly distinguishable as humans, serve a huge dramatic part in the play. The role of the three weird sisters in the play is to generate imagery, mood, and atmosphere and to serve as the reason that will bring Macbeth, Thane of Glamis, to his downfall.

The witches can foretell the future, they add temptation, and influence Macbeth, but they cannot control his destiny. Macbeth creates his own misery when he is driven by his own sense of guilt. This causes him to become insecure as to the reasons for his actions, which in turn cause him to commit more murders. He constantly reveals his innermost thoughts. The witches offer great persuasion, but it is in the end, each individual’s decision to fall for the temptation, or to be strong enough to resist the witches captivation. Sometimes it is thought that the witches have the ability to reverse the natural order of things. When the witches tell him the vision, Macbeth is pleased with what he hears for he ‘Shall never be vanquished’ and ‘none of women born shall harm Macbeth.’ Macbeth’s mind is overridden by greed and ambition, he becomes more and more evil so he doesn’t think about what the prophecies truly meant. This shows that the witches are very influential once they have chosen their prey. Banquo is surprised that Macbeth isn’t ecstatic at the prophecy, and asks the witches why they have no prophecy for him. The witches make important predictions for Banquo, as lesser but greater, less happy but happier than Macbeth. They also say his children will become Kings. When Banquo says ‘The earth hath bubbles, as the water has, / And these are of them. Whither are they vanish’d?’ this to me means that Banquo is unsure whether these witches belong to the physical or the supernatural world. Banquo is cautious of the witches, because evil can sometimes seem tempting. ‘So foul and fair a day’, which are Macbeth’s first words in Act , Scene echo the witches’ last lines in Act , Scene .

The play begins on a dark, barren place in Scotland where the witches plan to meet after the battle, which we later find is a rebellion in Scotland, and to the witches, the outcome is known. When shall we three meet again? / In thunder, lightning, or in rain?”, says the first witch. They make plans to find Macbeth upon the Heath, and exit chanting “Fair is foul, and foul is fair / Hover through the fog and filthy air.” At the very beginning, the atmosphere that has been created is contributed to the effect of just the witches’ presence. However, the settings for the scenes help considerably to portray the darkness and gloom. In the following scene, it is in fact the given descriptions of the environment that create the first perception of evil [A desert place. Thunder and Lightning. Enter three witches.] The witches in the very first lines of the play foreshadowed all this imagery because the atmosphere is dark and evil. Because the witches show up at seemingly correct parts in accordance with the major events, these two lines confirm the setting and mood, which characterizes Macbeth. The first witch speaks the following lines “When shall we three meet again/ In thunder, lightning, or in rain.” The atmosphere is further expressed with the ending lines of the scene, with references to Paddock, a toad, which they worship, and the murky environment. These hideous images further make the atmosphere more revolting. “Paddock calls. � Anon! Fair is foul, and foul is fair. Hover through the fog and filthy air.”

In Act d, scene , in which the witches appear we see how their power is limited. One of the witches asks the sailor’s wife can she have a chestnut, but she refuses to give her a chestnut. Because she refuses, they make the sailors life hell when he’s out sailing on his boat, by creating massive wave storms. Although they do not have the power to kill him, they just cause him misery. In the film by Roman Polanski this scene is cut out. I think he does this because he wants the witches to seem like they are all powerful. If Polanski included this scene it would spoil the whole image he is trying to create of the witches and would show that the witches’ powers have a barrier.

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When Lady Macbeth receives the news of the prophecies in Act d, Scene 5 in a letter from her husband, she is determined the prophecy of him becoming king will come true, but she is worried that Macbeth won’t have the guts to kill for the position. “They met me in the day of success and I have learned by the perfectest report, they have more in them than mortal knowledge.” This, in Macbeth’s letter to his wife, writes of the witches and has jumped to a conclusion; he doesn’t know for sure that the witches have supernatural knowledge. It’s true that moments after they hail Macbeth as Thane of Cawdor, Angus and Ross deliver the news that he has been named Thane of Cawdor, but that news wasn’t a secret. The witches could have picked it up before Angus and Ross showed up.

Macbeth’s ambition is deep within him and because of this, both the witches and Lady Macbeth are able to manipulate him to evil. It is this ambition that gets him into so much trouble initially. Macbeth is portrayed to have retained his own free will, given that his actions are inspired by Lady Macbeth. If the evil that Macbeth is going to commit cannot be directly carried out by the witches’ command over him, then how will he be compelled to murder Duncan and the many more that follow? Everyone is responsible for his own destiny. This is an important theme in this tragedy. Macbeth chooses to gamble with his soul and when he does this it is only him who chooses to lose it. He is responsible for anything he does and must take total liability for his actions. Macbeth is the one who made the final decision to carry out his actions. He made these final decisions and continued with the killings. I think the three witches, knowing of his ambitions, could persuade Macbeth to evil, but they could not compel him to it; by a vague representation of the foreseen future they could tempt him to choose an apparent before a real good. I don’t think the witches are of all power but like capitalizing on the weakness of others. Macbeth falls into this trap and someone else may have not been so weak. They enjoy preying on Macbeth because they like to exploit his weaknesses, like seeing him being destroyed and enjoy watching his high and mighty title collapsing in front of him.



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efawfafa

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NATIONAL DESK | August 5, 00, Monday

Old ID Card Gives New Status to Mexicans in U.S.



By RACHEL L. SWARNS (NYT) 1705 words

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Late Edition - Final , Section A , Page 1 , Column 4

ABSTRACT - Indianapolis and seven other Midwestern cities are accepting identity card issued by Mexican government, offering Mexicans who are in US illegally a startlingly new sense of legitimacy; card has been issued by Mexican government for more than 100 years to keep track of its citizens in US; now American cities and states are recognizing card, too, in effort to identify residents in aftermath of terrorist attacks of Sept 11, and as way to better serve immigrants; now immigrants in Midwestern cities with Mexican identification card can borrow library books, arrange city water services, apply for building licenses and permits to drive taxis, among other things; illegal immigrants who carry card still risk deportation and are still barred from working by federal law, but they often live more freely in cities that recognize card; photos (M) “Since September 8th, government-chartered planes or buses have moved more than 4100 immigrants in Arizona to Texas border cities. From there, they are sent back to Mexico “. In other words deportation know as Border Patrol’s Lateral Repatriation Program that consist on the expulsion of an illegal alien hundreds of miles away from where they were caught.

Over the last two centuries illegal immigrants have became a major problem for U.S. Border Patrol authorities, and Federal Agencies have spent millions of dollars trying to solve this issue but no policies were set before 174 when the actions taken were arresting suspecting illegal aliens focusing always on those who showed up seasonally or those who ran during organized raids when they could arrest as many as 45 persons at the time. By 176 arrest procedures were under scrutiny and then, it was when deportation hearings required full courtroom procedures. By January 18 8,811 aliens were caught along the southern border, it increased 46% from the year before.

It was when an amnesty was put in place to stop the incoming illegal aliens from Mexico. The problem rise again by the early 10’s and a new policy raised “prevention through deterrence”.

From the period of 186 through 16 border patrol was provided with more sources, including additional layers of fencing for San Diego and other major entry points. But still, this has not stopped illegal immigrants to cross the border, until now a day, when the implementation of a pilot program that has armed vigilante patrols that are trying to frighten people so they don’t cross the border as they are armed and, some aliens said, “there are not playing, they’re going to kill”. In the other hand, the Lateral Repatriation Program, known as a humanitarian program that pretends to remove immigrants from the danger of the Arizona dessert, has as main target to reduce repeated attempts to cross the border by deporting aliens from a different border to the one they used to cross, by plane, and to different cities, in Mexico, far away from the border.

As it was thought, the Border Patrol thinks this program works because of the results, 4,48 deportations and a trend of arrests in the dessert of Arizona that has dropped 18%. They may take it as a formal program despite the cost of it, $1. million dollars for the month of September, meaning that 00 aliens have been deported every day at a cost of $56,000 per flight ($0 for each one�way ticket). In the other hand, Mexican authorities are not agree because it becomes a major problem for them since they argument they are not prepared to provide shelter for the hundreds of immigrants they have been asked to held. Furthermore, the conditions in which aliens are deported are not humanitarian, since they are chained from their waist and hands and they remain the same until they are handed to Mexican authorities; as this is consider a violation to their human rights the NATO may not agree with this program, and a question is raised, why do Mexican aliens want to cross the border in spite of the U.S. government immigration policies and programs?.



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Edgar Allan Poe's Literary Devices

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Edgar Allan Poe’s literature consists of various literary devices such as personification, similes, allusions, imagery, and diction.

Poe’s diction words are extremely intense and play a vital role in setting the mood, or tone of the story. It allows the reader to fully interpret his theme. In the poem “The Raven”, Poe is overwhelmed by melancholy and omens of death. This poem depicts usage of diction with gothic words. Some of these gothic words are sorrow, cried, unhappy, and unmerciful, since he repeats these words continually in the poem. These words describe Poe’s emotions about his forgotten long, lost love.

Poe’s writings are known for gloomy and gothic imagery. For example, the story The Murders in the Rue Morgue, gives an intense description of the murders occurring in the house, and the murderer, the orangutan. “Dark bruises, deep indentations, and the body was fearfully mutilated”, describes the death of the mother and child (Poe,). The poem “The Raven” uses a bird to teach a valuable lesson in life. This lesson was to never forget those loved ones in the past. The author’s use of a raven as the communicator rather than a person brings a sense of dreariness to the story.

Poe’s usage of personification is to help express emotions and interpret meaning in the writings. One of the personifications used in The Murders in the Rue Morgue is, “perhaps of a diseased, intelligence” (Poe,). This was used to explain the narrator’s

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admiration with Mr. Dupin’s intelligence. In The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar. Poe personifies death, “…the encroachments of Death might be arrested by the process” (1).

The usage of allusions is vital to the themes of these writings. In “The Raven”, Poe states, “Tell his soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn” (). Aidenn is an allusion of paradise. Poe is asking the raven, is his lost love in paradise? Yet, Poe already knows that the raven will simply answer “Nevermore” (6). This aspect heightens the grievance of the narrator.

These literary devices used in Poe’s writings sometimes makes it quarrelsome to comprehend the meaning of these literatures, yet an advance explication of the text will suffice, and lead you to a broader understanding.



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divorce

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As with most life transitions, divorce can be liberating, depressing, frustrating, or traumatic to any person who experiences it. Perhaps the most painful part on the process of divorce is when the children get involved and when they all get trapped in the situation. These children may suffer significant losses in their lives and unless the situation can be handled in a civil manner, they will become prone to the psychological torment that could affect them for the rest of their lives. The issue of divorce however is becoming more and more intense since for the past ten years the divorce rate in the United States has skyrocketed to a record high of almost fifty- percent. It is also believed that the divorce rate in the United States is the highest in the world and the reason for this are primarily the ever-changing role of the husbands and wives in their household, early marriage, infidelity, extra marital affairs, domestic violence, financial instability and psychological incapacity.

The issue of divorce is not only the main problem in the American society of today. The custody issue on who is going to gain the right to take care of the children wholly is also a tough one. For the past decade, divorce and the custody battle have rapidly become a significant life event for perhaps millions of Americans each year. “There were more than two million divorces each year, affecting million adults and more than two million children (Thompson, Parting 18).” Thus we can prognosticate that the American family of today is definitely ill and is in great need of a revival.

The first and probably the most important step in order for couples to have a solid relationship is education. Education is the key to lowering divorce rate. Divorce is one of those issues where private and personal behavior exacts a huge public cost, “but because divorce and marriage are such intensely personal issues, most citizens are loath to support any program that injects government into the process (Uncoupling ).” We share the view that new laws or public programs cannot solve this crisis. However, it seems equally clear we cannot sit idle as divorce ravages families and society. Couples who are planning to get married should somehow take a step in advance to learn about the process of marriage and the circumstances that surround it. These can help couples better understand what marriage is all about and it can also help them see some other expectations in their future. Counseling is also an alternative. Marriage counselors can be a great help for couples who are contemplating a marriage.

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Presently, the role of both husbands and wives has changed dramatically since the advent of the technological revolution in our society. Women are now often seen in the professional fields than ever before. Men still remain as the chief provider of the family but because of the involvement of their wives in the professional field, their relationship amongst themselves have also began to drift apart. These differences can sometimes lead to divorce. However, divorce can be easily prevented in this kind of situation. Marriage is all about the understanding and the love for each other. In able for a marriage to become healthy, both parties should come together in combining the effort to strengthen their relationship. Time is the most important thing in a relationship. Husbands and wives should try to compensate the time they lost from each other. Time is very useful in maintaining a relationship. It builds up trust and confidence for both parties thus making the marriage foundation firm.

Economic opportunities also seem to be a significant factor in divorce. The rise in divorce closely parallels the increase in the number of women working. Women with a paycheck were less likely to stay in a marriage that wasnt fulfilling to them. Armed with a measure of economic power, many women had less incentive to stay in a marriage and work out their differences with their husbands.

Moreover, domestic violence has also become a very clear indication of a failed marriage. A lot of us think that it is only a private matter and that we cannot interfere with the issue but we must take a stand on preventing it. “Women who suffer abuse do not only feel the physical pain but also a psychological and emotional pain as well (Trish Wilson http//www.feminista.com/v1n4/twilson.html).” An abused woman should not focus on leaving her abuser. She should try to work out some alternatives to save her from the hands of her abuser and to save the integrity of her marriage as well. Her focus should be on doing what is necessary for her to get her life in order. Her physical, psychological, and emotional health need to be restored and stabilized. She will need to get her finances in order and with renewed strength will come her resolve to better protect herself and her children. People should also campaign against domestic violence because that is the only way of educating people about it. These campaigns may also save marriages and it may also lessen the problem in our society.

Another issue is the high numbers of extra marital affairs and infidelity cases in marriages today. It can be argued that with sexual infidelity comes as a lack of respect for the other partner and blatant disloyalty in the marriage. This may not sustain the assumption that sexual fidelity is synonymous with loyalty, but it does allude to the idea that the concepts are interlocked. In this example, it is imperative to locate the root of negative feelings in the relationship instead of assuming that it stems from the act of sexual infidelity. To most couples, love, sex, and jealousy will seem a perfectly natural, even inevitable threesome, intimately associated with contemporary marriage. Jealousy is primarily a learned response, determined by cultural attitudes. Jealousy is aroused in relation to that which you already posses. No one person can ever own another person. (ONeill -40) It appears that what you are jealous about, you infer a feeling of ownership to. Marriage is not an institution for owning a person; it is for becoming partners with that person. In the case where jealousy is the reaction of the sexual infidelity, great care should be taken to re-evaluate the cause for this emotion. Another negative and most common feeling that arises is that of distrust. Trust is a two-way street. Both partners must not only trust, but also be trustworthy through sharing experiences with one another.

Marriage is a very joyful event in a person’s life. However, unless much can be done in order to redefine the status of what marriage is all about, divorce and other marital problems will continue to arise tremendously. Divorce is tumultuous event in a married couple’s life. It does not only affect the financial status of the household, but rather it also affects the people that comprises the family especially the children. Families are experiencing many problems today, but the role of divorce in this picture has been frequently overlooked because its destructive effects have been subtle, yet insidious. When the divorce rate increased in the 160s, few would have predicted its dire consequences three decades later. Yet divorce has changed both the structure and the impact of the family. Intimacy, time, effort trust and love is the key to have a peaceful and healthy relationship. Marriage for life is Gods ideal, but divorce is a reality in our society.





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Christopher Marlowe vs. Sir Walter Raleigh

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Carpe Diem poetry is a unique style of writing that focuses on enjoying the present without concern for the future. Two successful authors, Christopher Marlowe and Sir Walter Raleigh have used the Carpe Diem style to write two delightful poems. “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” by Marlowe and “The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd” by Raleigh both relate because Raleigh’s poem is actually a written response to Marlowe’s poem. Marlowe and Raleigh’s point-of-views have a great way of affecting the delivery of the poems’ themes. The theme of each poem has a great impact on the audience’s reaction. This is because of how two poems of the same idea have a completely different message.

“The Passionate Shepherd to his Love” is a poem that mainly focuses on love with nature. Marlowe explains this relationship by writing about a Shepherd who describes various pleasures of nature if his love would live with him. Marlowe clearly sets an illustration to the reader’s mind with his descriptiveness in the poem. As the reader, I think this poem is written in a delightful tone. It makes me observe nature as a place of pure comfort. The theme of this poem states tat a common individual will do his or her best to comfort their love with the best of nature. “The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd” is a poem with the same idea. What makes this poem different is that Raleigh has written it in the Nymph’s point-of-view. This is also a response to Marlowe’s poem. The focus of this poem is the future. The Nymph replies with concern of the consequences of the Shepherd’s pleasures. Time becomes an important part of the poem because time can dramatically change the conditions of the environment. An example of this occurs in stanza three, “the flowers to fade, and wanton fields to wayward winter reckoning yields...”. An example of how materialistic pleasures lose meaning through time occurs in stanza four, “...thy kirtle, and thy posies soon break, soon wither, soon forgotten...”. After reading this poem, I think this poem is written with concern and sorrow. Raleigh’s use of words such as “wither”, “heart of gall”, and “rotten “ reinforce the theme. The theme states that true love is not achieved through natural pleasures, but through the emotions and care of a lover’s heart.



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In addition to Marlowe and Raleigh’s wise use of words, various poetic devices are included throughout both poems. In “the Passionate Shepherd to His Love”, personification is used in line 8. In “The Nymph’s Reply to the shepherd”, personification is used in lines 1 and 1. In line 7 of this poem, “Philomel” is an example of an allusion. Metaphors are used in stanza three. Line 15 contains an echo of the word, “soon”. Diction, or the poet’s choice of words, is a device that contributes to the overall tone of the poems. In Marlowe’s poem, “melodious birds” and “leaves of myrtle” are two examples that make the delightful tone of the poem. In raleigh’s poem, “wayward winter” and “reason rotten” are two examples that adds sorrow to the theme. These poetic devices are what reinforces the ideas of both poems. Without them, readers would see a “flat” poem with no significant meaning.



Christopher Marlowe and Sir Walter Raleigh have very unique perspectives when the Carpe Diem style of poetry is involved. Marlowe looks into seizing today’s opportunities, while Raleigh looks into future concerns. They successfully create an idea of love and nature, but in two different perspectives. Therefor the overall theme of both poems states that lovers will strive to comfort their love as best as they can, yet they fail to realize that much of what they have is not promised to last forever. Without Raleigh’s response to Marlowe, the overall theme would not be stated the way it is. Without Marlowe’s poem, the overall theme may not exist. The whole idea is love versus time.

Please note that this sample paper on Christopher Marlowe vs. Sir Walter Raleigh is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Christopher Marlowe vs. Sir Walter Raleigh, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Christopher Marlowe vs. Sir Walter Raleigh will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Cambridge Jerked Chicken

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CAMBRIDGE JERKED CHICKEN

About as tired as road kill, this subject must be after run the lines of this paper, looking forward to the eighteen wheels of the diesel truck on the horizon. “Cognition, Convention, and Certainty What we need to Know about writing”, is a review by Patricia BIzzell of Cognitive Processes in Writing, Ed. Lee W. Gregg. They both must have already found the secret to humanity to devote such intellect to this poor, fly less, tire marked animal. As many of my rescue instructors drilled in us is, “keep it simple,” when there is more complication there is more that can go wrong. So the battle stage is set. We have the inner-directed theorist VS the blood thirsty outer-directed theorist. Are we born with A fundamental Universal language or were we taught it by the “discourse community” (the community we were brought into) through the “discourse conventions” (the ways of the community we were brought into). I share the views of The Yeng Yang, life is all about balance. I believe we inherit a lot of who we are however our surface is subject to change through our experiences with our environment.

It is apparent to me through witnessing the development of my niece that the outer �directed view of “one can’t have an idea one doesn’t have a word for” (Bizzel), Is as true as truth is absolute. Before she knew a word she did have ideas of going to Mac Donald’s every time we pasted the reining golden arches. The American global empire did save the day while we were in Europe. She definitely had strong ideas to go out side with clear concise communication pulling at you and pointing to the front glass door. Maybe George Dillon’s “bottom-to-top” was not completely false.

The lack of studies leaves only my own accounts to back my hypothesis of how we inherit more than most realize. I do sometimes here of biological identical twins separated at birth ending up to be identical in not just looks but also choices, names, cars, favorites, and even spouses. My niece could not even walk yet she so desired to be outside when a car pasted playing loud music she danced to the rhythm. Her mother would always be outside as a child and later on the dance floor at the club. I remember a few years back going grocery shopping with her when her favorite song played she grabbed my hand we started dancing there on spies isle.

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Flower-Hayes cognitive Process Theory may have been disappointingly clich� but Vygotsky’s dialectical relationship describing children’s lingua development as verbal thought is rather intriguing. I still stand with Yeng Yang life is about balance.

I do like how Bizzel at least first began to address the issue of our current problem, our education or lack there of. It is hard to learn/teach style to someone like myself, a product of the single working parent generation, standing on a patchy foundation of basic grammar and reading skills. We can hope all the persevering analysis may give some light cause a spark to the wild fire of momentum we need to raise our American education standards up to par with the rest of the world possible surpassing to be the elite we boast we are.

I believe most our core traits and behavioral tendencies are genetically passed from our parents. Since we our born with these core traits and tendencies it inherently effects our development of language and communication skills. However this clay block of traits is subject to being molded from our experiences with our environment. I therefore maintain my balance with life keeping the peace between the inner-directed theorist and the blood thirsty outer-directed theorist. Chicken without any spies is just bland chicken.



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suckadee

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History is always a good one in this respect. Have a read of Carrs What is History- particulary the chapter about the importance of the historian in history.



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4 Weeks Ago

(In reply to Tok essay!!!!!!!!!!)



Unregistered1

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Originally Posted by muffe

I have an example you can use, look into the memory of HO case.

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I looked around for the memory of HO case, but havent been able to find it anywhere, and to be honest do not really know what it is....so if u could just write back and be a little more specific it would help a lot...thanxxxxx!!



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Linda

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Originally Posted by Unregistered1

I looked around for the memory of HO case, but havent been able to find it anywhere, and to be honest do not really know what it is....so if u could just write back and be a little more specific it would help a lot...thanxxxxx!!

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I think this on on a Norwegian television show called Newton not to long ago... Dont remember the details. Some researchers were trying to find evidence against homeopathy, and were really surprised when they though they had actually found evidence for it... They published their results but the government demanded a new experimet to be conducted. So they did, looking for the same patterns they had come up with before, again claiming they had found it. However, the goverment had also put up an independent research group to conduct the same experiment, someone whos names wouldnt be affected ina negative way if the experiment failed. And it did...

Sorry, thats all I remember.



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safeway

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Safeway was competing in imperfect competition. Because of the structure of monopolistic competition Safeway had to look for new and improving ways to be able to compete with new chains.

Another challenge for the firm was its old and outdated stores that needed major renovations. Because of negative financial situation Safeway was not in a position to be able to remodel all of its stores. My recommendation would be to start with most profitable stores in urban areas where the competition is the highest and then to move to less profitable stores.

Safeway was highly unionized and it didn’t have enough room to squeeze out enough cost savings to offset the higher cost/wage structure. To compete with nonunion shops, it had to either trim labor cost or jobs. In my opinion, Safeway’s management was not persuasive enough when it came to negotiations with unions, and because of that had to close many more stores than were planning.

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In the pre-LBO stage management was able to realize that changes are needed to be part of the best in the industry; however, in my opinion, the strategy that was used was not completely appropriate. Instead, of selling some stores right away, I would recommend first to take a closer look at the reasons why the stores were not performing to the standards; then I would have the real estate to be appraised before making sale.

In my opinion Safeway’s management did a good job looking into different options before selecting LBO as its final decision.

When it comes to selling assets I disagree with the management and it sales of the U.K. division. My criteria for selling assets would include wage premium, higher cost structure, age of stores, difference between market and book value of assets.

BODY OF ANALYSIS

Economic Structure

From the economic structure Safeway Inc, competed in imperfect competition. Monopolistic competition combines the features of a competitive market structure (many small buyers and sellers, similar cost, no significant entry/exit cost, no information costs) with product differentiation. In this model all firms compete equally for all consumers.

Safeway was an example of monopolistic competition; it was one of many existing with many new potential entrant stores. It had very similar or sometimes even identical cost of products as its competitors.

In 180s it was not easy to be a part of monopolistic competition. With low entry barriers competition was increasing rapidly. To keep its customers Safeway had to look for new ways to improve consumer service. In 180, Safeway’s strategy revolved around superior quality, superior selection, superior service, and competitive prices. The four pillars strategy was good before 180 but was not enough in 180’s, with increasing numbers of new chains and new stores coming to the market Safeway had to reevaluate its current situation. In my opinion, Safeway’s management was not aggressive enough and was too afraid to make radical changes. With its long tradition Safeway already had high number of customers but too keep them coming back Safeway’s management job was to look for new product and service innovation. Of course, there are always some consumers that shop at this same store for years and are afraid of trying new products; however, it is people’s nature to be able to expand and to see “the world”, for them it is very easy to change their shopping habits especially if they could find better selection of products and better price somewhere else.

Market trends that were affecting Safeway in 180 were de-unionization, store modernization and increased competition from regional chains.

Many of Safeway’s stores were old and outdated. Incorporation was not able to upgrade all of its 600 stores and management’s role was to decide which stores should have been updated with new equipment and technology. Because of changes in the work force location of stores was also very important. Before 180 many more women were stay home mothers who had time to drive to their favorite grocery store. With many more women going to work in corporate world in 180’s their priorities and habits had change. Many people were shopping on their way home. It was important for Safeway to be able to focus on stores location and starts any innovations with stores with the highest number of customers. In my opinion, first they should have upgraded most profitable stores in high urban areas where the competition was the highest, then focus on stores that are profitable and have a good future. I would not have touch stores in the country with small number of customers until the last to make sure that the firm is not wasting its money on something that was not needed. Instead of remodeling it could have been much more profitable to sell the real estate.

Another market trend that affected Safeway at that time was increasing number of new stores that were non-unionized which help them reduce labor cost and higher additional employees to increase customer’s service. Safeway by being highly unionize was in a great disadvantage. The only solution to this problem was to negotiate with unions on wage issues and productivity increase.

When it comes to competition from regional chains Safeway was also loosing at that time. The Robinson-Patman Act prohibited national chains from discounts that were available to regional chains. The Act was passed back in 16 when the situation in market place was much different than situation in 180s. Solution here would have been to try for legislatives body to revise the Robinson-Patman Act. Safeway could have also tried to take products from vendors on consignment- in other words, not pay for goods until they have been sold to consumers. This strategy would have free up some short term cash.

Financial performance measures

As a key performance measure in the preinitial restructuring period Safeway management used growth in sales, profitability, and number of stores. In my opinion, measures used by management were appropriate. It allowed them to realize which stores and divisions were profitable and should have been kept open.

By comparing its operations to operations of other national grocery chains it helped Safeway to find out that the average of net income as percentage of sale was way below national average for Safeway. This showed the management that changes were needed and Safeway will not be able to exist in this situation for much longer. I think that it was great that Safeway was looking at 10 best chains in the USA by doing that the management was able to come up with few ideas to improve their situation. What I would have recommended for them at that time was to take a closer look at the best two chains in the market and see what they were doing to make them the best. Was it new products, location of their stores, management, etc.? In my opinion, it would very helpful to have a strategy in place that would have reflected Safeway goals. Was it to be the best of the best or was it to be one of 10 best chains in the US?

Pre- LBO

Safeway pre-LBO mission was to increase income as a percentage of sales and be able to pay dividends to its shareholders.

Safeway’s strategy was to close some of its poorest performing stores and consolidating U.S divisions which helped managing geographical dispersion. When it comes to pricing strategy Safeway goal was to keep prices within 5% of its major competitors and also used selective discounts. By opening its own bakeries, new delis and pharmacies management was able to increase income and safe on cost. New updated scanning system attracted customers and helped earning growth.

The pre-LBO strategy was effective for Safeway, net income increased from .7% in 180 to 1.17% in 185 with dividends increased five years in a row. Safeway was able to achieve its goal; however, in my opinion the goal was set too low. There were stores in 180 with net income as a percentage of sales with as high as 1. and 1..

In general, firm’s initial response to poor performance was appropriate. With over 4 store in 180 it was hard for Safeway to manage and upgrade all if its stores. By looking at performance the firm was able to determinate stores with low profitability and sells the ones that were loosing money.

The overall plan was good; however, they should have paid more attention to operating and administrative expensed. Wages and benefits were made over 60% of the expenses.

In my opinion, speed of the changes could have been better. Of course, it takes time to come up with good strategy and implement changes; however, once Safeway, was done with the pre-LBO strategy its financial situation was well know in the business world which made Safeway loosing profit on some of sells from its real estate because buyers already knew that the firm would need to sell it anyway.

When it comes to performance of different divisions, the one that were underperforming were closed. I’m not sure if the management spent enough time trying to find out why they were not performing. What I would recommend instead of selling them right away is to take a closer look at the regions potential. If there were any potential that the price of real estate could go up because of building new neighborhoods or potential new corporations coming into region I would try to lease those stores instead of selling them. It is hard to believe it that management did not schedule any appraisals before selling many of its stores. By not doing that many of them were sold below their market price.

Cost/wage structure

The current cost/wage structure was not economically sustainable in view of the market structure and new market trends even with substantial productivity increase. For unionize Safeway it was very hard to compete with non-unionized chains with lower labor cost. For Safeway labor cost was approximately two-thirds of a store’s non-merchandise operating expense. Between 180 and 185 Safeway average hourly cost increased from 1.% to more than % in 185. With the cost increasing in this speed Safeway would not have been able to compete with other chains.

With Safeway competing in monopolistic competition there was not enough room to squeeze out enough cost savings to offset the higher cost/wage structure. To compete with nonunion shops, the choice was between trimming labor cost or jobs. And cutting jobs would mean long waits at the checkout. With plenty of alternatives for cost- and time-conscious shoppers, that was the last thing Safeway needed. The only option was to negotiate with unions. Some of the ideas that could save Safeway money would have been to stretch out periods between raises, lower percentage of wage increase, and offer lower hourly rate for new hire. For higher paid clerks offer other benefits as store gift certificates instead of hourly increases. Also cross training for employees could have benefit the firm by saving money; however, unions were not concerned with financial situation. Unions leaders were looking at increasing profits and dividends being paid but was did not understand the firm economic and financial problems. In December of 186, the meat cutlers union in Huston TX agreed to $1.50 pay cut to Kroger but refused to Safeway. In my opinion, Safeway’s management was not persuasive enough when it comes to negotiations with unions. It should have follow Kroger’s steps and just as Kroger did Safeway’s management should have also threatened to close stores unless unions agreed to concession. By extending in to longer hours and lower pay. Those wage roll backs would have add up to an annual savings on million of dollars that’s why if management interest was too keep profits up they should have been more aggressive. Sometimes even if you status quo incorporation it is hard to survive without making changes.

Alternative tactic strategies

Safeway management was looking at different strategy to reorganize the firm. The first that was considered was “white Knight.” They were willing to be bough put in positive friendly way; however, all of potential buyers were interested only in picies of the corporation and its land. Safeway s management was willing to close some of the stores but in general it wanted to keep the business together that’s why “white knight “was not an option for Safeway.

Second option that was considered was to pay “greenmail” to Haft family. By buying back Haft’s family shares it would have only prevented Haft family of buying more hares but it could not have stopped takeovers attempts by other investors. In addition, Standstill agreement was very costly.

Third option was to do a recapitalization by borrowing money and/or selling assets to finance larger dividends to shareholder. It was a good option for some companies but not for Safeway. On one hand process of a recapitalization make the company unattractive to hostile takeover because the hostile company would need to pay of debt first, and of course Safeway’s management wanted to prevent hostile takeover. However, this is very risky process and that’s why not too many companies choose to do so.

Fourth options, was possible spin-off between West Cost and east cost; however, this was not an option because management wanted the company to be national chain.

LBO

The final option for Safeway was the leveraged buyout and was option that the management decided to go with. The expectation of the LBO was to increase firm value under private ownership. By changing ownership structure Safeway was able to save on administrative cost. LBO also allowed the firm to increase managerial incentives and flexibility as well as shareholders participation. Negative side of the LBO was that it was financed mostly through debt which needed to be paid off and this required management to start selling assets.

Safeway’s management was faced with many obstacles in asset sales. Market knew that Safeway has to sell assets to meet debt service so they have an incentive to bid low and delay the process. It was in the buyer’s interest to delay the process as much as possible to get the best price for them even if the assets were attractive. When it comes to Safeway they had to move as quickly as possible or it will face financial distress. In my opinion, Safeway’s management even with knowledge of it financial situation was not moving fast enough. They were concern about their employees and wanted to make sure that they find good buyers who would provide jobs for its employees. I was good to know that management cares about future of stores that were going to be sold but on another hand there was no time especially with unions not being willing to cooperate.

Sales of U.K. operations

Safeway after LBO sold 1 its stores in U.K to the Bormans at a lower overall price than selling the division piecemeal. This division not only was sold undervalue but it was the most profitable of Safeway’s divisions. I completely disagree with sale of U.K division. In my opinion, Safeway management was too much pro quo and too concern about its people. There intentions were too show U.S. employees that they would do everything in their power to keep stores open in U.S. If I was a part of that management team I would not have sold the U.K division. It was not only very profitable but international unions were willing to work towards wage reduction where American unions did not care. By looking at different companies in 180 there is a beginning of globalization trend with corporations moving off shore to save on labor cost, and at this same time Safeway was closing its profitable operations oversees only to “fight” with labor unions in U.S.

The Dallas division

Sale of the Dallas division was probably much better for the community than keeping old Safeway stores open. With Safeway position not being able to remodeled all of its stores, sale of this division would allowed potential buyer to not only remodeled them but also but not being unionize lower prices which would have positive impact on entire community. Safeway knew that it would not be able to offer lower prices because unions were not willing to cooperate even at the time when stores were already on sale.

Sales of assets

My criteria for selling assets would include wage premium, higher cost structure, age of stores and their locations. By looking at table 7 I could tell much about location of the divisions; however, location is very important if most of the stores were located in the country with low profits I would probably sell those stores first especially if then needed remodeling and I did not see future for any business in the area.

By looking at wage premium with $4 Division Alpha and Psi would next with their operating profit around 6millions annually and negative trend in rank of market share. The I would sold PHI with $.00 wage premium, only 1 million in annual operating profit, apprised assets value 10 million below book value, and negative trend in rank of market share. After that, I would sell Beta with negative annual operating income and appraised asset value lower than book value of assets.

SUMMARY

For any financial restructuring to be successful is important that managers understand the fundamental business and strategies problems as well as opportunities that their company faces. Safeway’s management was able to realize that there is a need for restructuring and was able to implement some solutions.

In my opinion, Safeway’s top management was lacking from a good financial and operation analyst, person who would be not afraid of changes. By looking at some of their decision that were made I would say that Safeway’s top executives included more “food” people than “money” people. Some of the stores and real estate was sold without appraisal which made the company to loose its money. The firm was undervalued because its assets were not representing true market value. Then, they sold most profitable chain way under value only to show American unions that they would keep the U.S stores open which did not make too much sense, especially that union in the U.S. was not willing to cooperate.

When it comes to wage negotiations, Safeway’s management was not persuasive enough, which cost them profits. By looking at unions attitude at that time Safeway needed someone more aggressive to convey negotiations. Employee’s morale was also down. In my opinion, to boost employee morale it would be helpful to set up “roundtable” meetings to solicit suggestions and ideas which wasn’t done,

Safeway management did not look into moving some of its costs onto vendors. Example could include paying for shelf space or asking vendors to put its own tags on fruits to free produce clerks for other tasks.

When it comes to restructuring alternatives Safeway management did a good job by looking into different options before making its final decisions. Most of the alternatives did not fit Safeway’s management style.

By choosing LBO management was expecting to increase firm value under private ownership with increasing financial leverage and decreasing administrative cost savings. When it comes to selling assets I would focus on wage premium with labor cost being 60% of a store’s nonmerchandise operating expense; then look into age of store and cost structure to upgrade them; after, that on annual operating profits, appraised and book value of assets. After LBO being done, Safeway’s management did not have too much to say when it came to the sale price of its assets. Potential buyers knew that Safeway had to sell its assets to be able to pay off its debt that’s why many of the buyers were not willing to pay asking price.



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Monday, October 1, 2012

quilting as a form of artistic expression as well as a form of nonverbal communication

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Quilting is a form of artistic expression that can also be used as a form of non-verbal communication. If one were to really study the quilts made throughout the centuries, he/she would learn much about the lives of people from that given era. Quilts historically have preserved family stories within the squares. Traditional designs were often named after historical events, political figures, foreign countries, or even houses or items lying around the farm eg “log cabin, “ “turkey track,” “wedding ring.” In order to deal with the multiple hardships that come along with life, and the lack of control and power they had over their own lives, the pioneer women quilted. These quilts provided and acceptable medium through which they could express themselves. Quilting has now gone far beyond the original designs and into an abstract art form. Most quilts today have the basic concepts of art; Color, Shape, texture, composition, and balance. Simplified, does this mean that quilts are art? (Cronin, 18, p.)

Quilting has always been a large part of cultures. Natives Americans would sew large pieces of animal hide together to make blankets and clothing. The oldest surviving quilt dates back to 176, but quilting goes far beyond that. Between 1775 and 178, quilts with patriotic themes became popular; they usually depicted battle scenes, heroes, and symbols of the revolution.

Memorial quilting was another popular technique that still goes on today. One of many types of memorial quilting is the Blue Star Service Banners, also known as Blue Star Flags. Family members would hang these banners in the windows of their homes to honer a family member who was away at war. This tradition was most common in the WWI and WWII era. A blue star is placed on a white background with a red border. If a family has more then one person in the armed services the stars are added, usually one below the other. If a soldier is killed in action, the blue star is replaced with a gold star or they would place a smaller gold star on top of a blue star so that both colors are showing. (Blue star banners and quilts, 00, p.1) Because of recent events in the news, an organization called the Blue Star Mothers and Gold Star Mothers. The organization consists of members who volenteer in various ways to help support our troops.(p.)

In 17, the cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry. From there, the fabric and thread factories bloomed. In 1814 the first power loom was installed in factories. By the 180’s, quilting became more then a chore, it became a hobby. Women would sit in a large circle and quilt for hours at a

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time, starting what is now called a “quilting bee”. (A timeline in quilting history of America, 00)

As pioneer women made their way across the Oregon Trail, they developed a new style of quilting called patchwork. Not only was it portable, but also a frugal use of scraps. In 1846, the first commercial quilt batting was produced. Sewing a quilt by hand was a very tedious process so in 1851, the sewing machine was patented, and a few years later it was available for home use. Quilting did not make another great leap again until 15 when multi stranded thread was introduced. Sometime around the 150’s, companies started to manufacture machine made quilts causing the quilting industry to go into a landslide. No longer did people NEED to make a quilt but rather pass the time by making a masterpiece that’s sole purpose was to be called art.

It seems to me that society is completely integrated with art. Even those who do not realize it are affected by it everyday. Art is both appreciated by the world and ignored. Art is everywhere and very important to people, from chair designs to the clothes we wear to room d�cor and building designs.

In a worldly context, art answers the “how” and “why” we carry on. The single word art has the context of both a fine masterpiece and a baby’s first scribble.

Society’s view of an artists work is necessary to a degree. If a quilter quilts a quilt in the forest and no one sees it, is it still beautiful? Is it still a quilt, or merely a blanket? Quilting is a form of communication with oneself,

with the people around them, and the people who look at their quilt in the future. Think of Indian cave drawings, were they art decorations or were they forms of communication? No one really knows, but what they tell us, the present generation, is about some of what was their present. Did they do it because they wanted to show future generations their world? Was it because others of their age, who were going to use the cave, would know what to expect in that part of the country Quite possibly, however they were showing off their artistic abilities. In the process they have provided us with a fascinating window into the world. When someone creates art, they freeze a moment in time, their personally experienced time. But in the process of creating and showing what they have done, they are communicating to present and future generations.

If all who created art had the freedom to do only what their hearts told them, would they do the same art they are doing now? The pictures that are produces don’t necessarily have to be what is around you. People have

feelings and emotions that art can help them explore by putting them on canvas, fabric, or clay.

Art is a form of communication. Think of art as a visual poetry. Certain poems tell a story, and some just sets the mood. Quilting is the same way. It can touch us in ways that music or poetry cannot. Some can affect us more then others depending on our personalities or experiences. A lot of people

take their experiences and put them into magnificent quilts that are meant to help other people who are going through some of the same experiences.

There is something that people find comforting in quilts so they are often used in charity situations. A few of the most famous charities are the Half the Sky Charity Quilt, which was made mainly by a woman named Chris Schulte. The quilt was shipped to the Half the Sky foundation to be either auctioned off or sent to an orphanage in china (original quilts, 00, p.1) other quilting projects include the Hugs for Homeless Animals, where afghans and quilts are made for animals in shelters, and the ABC quilt project, where members make quilts for babies born with HIV, AIDS, or other serious illnesses. The quilts are then sent to children in hospitals who need them (quilting for charity, 00, p.-)

Probably one of the most famous of all charity quilts is the AIDs Quilt. The quilt is the largest ongoing community arts project in the world. It has over 44,000 panels; each memorializes a person who was lost to AIDs. The quilt was started in November 185 by a San Francisco gay rights activists named Cleve Jones. The assassinations of gay San Francisco supervisor Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone, greatly impacted Mr. Jones who decided to help orginize the annual candlelight march in honor of these men. While planning the March of ’85, he discovered that over 1000 people in San Francisco alone had been lost to AIDS. During that march, he had the people participating write the name of a friend or loved one, who had died from the disease, on a notecard. At the end of the march, people stood on ladders and taped the notecards to the walls of the San Francisco federal building. In a way the wall slightly resembled a patchwork quilt, therefore giving Jones the idea for the AIDS quilt. A year later, the first panal of the quilt was completed. In June 187, Jones teamed up with Mike Smith and many others to officially orginize the NAMES project foundation.The quilt made such an impact on the American people that cities such as New York and Los Angelas sent panels to the San Francisco headquarters to be added to the quilt. Companies such as Singer donated sewing machines and equiptment.

On October 11, 187, the quilt was displayed for the first time ver at the National mall in Washington D.C., it covered a space larger the na football field and consisted of roughly 1,0 panels. Once again, the quilt hugely impacted the public which this itme led to a four month, twenty city, nationwide tour that started the spring on 188. The tour raised over $500,000 which was sent to hundreds of AIDS service organizations. During the tour, local blocks were added by different cities, each one commemorating the life of a friend or loved one who was lost to the disease. By the end of the tour, the AIDS memorial quilt was made up of over 6,000 panals.

Researchers have discovered that early quilt patterns were used by slaves to encrypt escape routes used by the Underground Railroad. One of the widely used codes was the Charleston code which consisted of an arrangement of symbols and mnemonic devices used to describe and map out escape route. Certain patterns signaled certain movements. (Dodson, 1, p.1-4)

·“monkey wrench” was a signal for the slaves to start packing the tools that would be necessary for the trip. (P.)

·“tumbling boxes” (boxes used for packing) signaled them that it was time to go. (p.)

Small sampler quilts of all patterns were made in advance to teach the code. When the full size quilts were hung, the people who were to make the journey were expected to have the codes memorized. Each quilt in the sequence was left out until all who would be traveling had the chance to see and understand the meaning of the quilt then the next quilt would be hung. To any regular person it looked as though the slaves were simply just airing out their quilts. Certain blocks were meant as directions, such as

·“Bears paw” which meant that the traveling slaves were to follow the bear tracks for a path to reliable food and water. (P.)

·“Wagon Wheel” referred to either a means of transportation or the setting sun in the west (P.)

·“Crossroads” meant a designation for Cleveland, Ohio, where major Underground Railroad routes met. (P.)

Some patterns were also meant as traveling tips

·“Flying Geese” patterns would tell the slaves to head in a certain direction depending on what color was used in the pattern, or it simply reminded the slaves to take note of the weather according to the migrating geese. (P.4)

·“Drunkards Path” was a reminder to slaves to zigzag their trail to throw off pursuers, (P.4)

·“Star” pattern was a reminder to use the stars as a navigations tool or to simply just travel at night. (P.4)

Colors played a huge role in the quilt codes. Depending on the colors used in a pattern, slaves would know what to expect weather wise or they would know if a certain cabin was being used as a safe house. The main reason these code quilts worked at all was because the slaves kept them secret. They knew that if these codes were to get out, hundreds of lives would be lost. Even today researchers have a hard time finding information on this topic mainly because it is so secretive. The Charleston code is only one of many codes that were used but it is very likely that we will never learn of any others mainly because ancestors of slaves have been taught to take this secret to the grave. (P.4)



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